دوره Using Python to Access Web Data ، فصل 3 : Networks and Sockets (Chapter 12)

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In this section we learn about the protocols that web browsers use to retrieve documents and web applications use to interact with Application Program Interfaces (APIs).

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But when you hook these two things together they are two pieces of software running on two independent computers that are actually chatting. Let's say you want to use millions of lines of code in the link and network and transport layer of your computer as well as the entire Internet and some server on the other side and the data and you want to talk to it. So the next thing we're going to talk about is once we've made these sockets, how we actually communicate to that far-off application in Python.

And so again, it's just a set of rules about just so we know what we're going to do first, know what the syntax we expect to produce and consume and make it so different vendors can work together and it's just a form of standards. Now it's many years ago in the 90s you had to know all these things separately but then we just kind of concatenated them all together and that became the Uniform Resource Locator or, hey, type this URL into your browser. And so it reads the HTML, parses it, and there's a bunch of rules about where you add blank lines and all these other things so that it looks the way that you want.

If I was to go to this in a browser, right there, you would see, and if I turned on developer console and I went to the network, let's make this a little bit bigger, you'd see that it retrieves this file "romeo.txt" and it gets back. What I'm getting is UTF-8 encoded data, most likely, and decode basically converts it to the internal format called Unicode that runs inside. And so, you know, this way we could write code that does stuff with this, but all we're really trying to do in this particular situation is show how you open a socket, send a command, and then retrieve the data.

The characters in the floor tiles spell out 'lo and behold' to commemorate the building where L and O were the first two packets ever sent on the ARPANET from UCLA to Stanford Research Institute on October 29th 1969. At the end of '68, Bolt, Beranek and Newman, a Cambridge Massachusetts firm, won the contract to produce the first switch of the ARPANET. Now that's especially interesting because if you go outside this hallway here down into the alley, and come in through another entrance to this building, and I just discovered this about a week ago, you walk on a platform, and there's a mosaic of tiles down there.

So there was no way we could build it smaller, but the thing that we probably did not expect or did not aim for, definitely, in the beginning at least, was to have this be useful outside the community of academics and Internet people that existed then. It's when we had the first conferences, when, you know, Mosaic got off the ground, really, and when commerce started to notice it and companies began to be formed exclusively with that in mind, and that was only then. I think that the real problem was that this development system is so much better than anything else that porting what we had here to any other platform took an order of magnitude more time.

And I'm Jack and I took the class with my daughter of course for the symmetry and we had a great time, and your teaching is awesome. Hi I'm Sonya, I'm a cognitive science graduate student at Georgia State University. I'll be honest, I haven't taken any of the lessons yet, but in my experiences in programming has been pretty rough, but now I have all the more reason to dive into it.

The town was the setting for Clear, an episode in season three of the hit AMC television show, in which the protagonist Rick Grimes returns to his abandoned hometown to look for weapons. This technology, which plunges the headset wearer into three dimensional virtual worlds that feel incredibly lifelike, is coming soon to consumers everywhere according to the two companies spearheading the charge. And finally in world news, archaeologists searching for a lost city in the jungles of Honduras have discovered the urban remains of what they believe is a vanished ancient civilization.

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