Commas and Comma Splices

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All right we’re on to section for punctuation crash course so I do this crash course on punctuation

not because this should be the focus of our writing or that we should think because we punctuate Well

our writing is somehow good.

We’ve really we’ve discussed the writing process.

We’ve discussed how to organize our ideas how to write good paragraphs how to write good conclusions

and so on.

That’s the focus of college writing punctuation crash course is simply to remember the things we should

have already learned in previous English classes in high school and throughout our lives.

And also just to refine or to clean up our writing.

So not sloppy with Mis punctuation mistakes.

So let’s start today by talking about commas and comma splices.

First we’ll discuss when to use commas properly.

The first place to use commas is in a series so commas separate the different items in a series or list

and remember that a conjunction and or or will follow the last comma.

And some people debate whether or not that’s necessary that we need a comment.

And in college writing always put a comma before the and or the or at the end of your list or series.

For example I visited the museum the museum with Sarah Rachel and Mike case so comma between each item

in the list.

And and and a comma before the last conjunction or and in this in the list we also need to remember

when we use terms like etc or so forth those are preceded by and followed by a comma.

For example I went with Sarah Rachel etc to the museum.

It’s kind of a silly sentence so that’s how we would punctuate a sentence like that.

Sarah Rachel cetra comma.

Another example I told the lawyer about the accident the victims and so forth.

Before I went to court so a comma before and after words like etc.

and so forth.

Good the next time we use a comma is an introductory phrases introductory phrases are those at the beginning

of a sentence that explain when where why how or the circumstances of the action occurring in a sentence.

For example when Sam turned 16 he will receive his driver’s license.

So we don’t use a comma if a verb directly follows the introductory phrase for example from the sky

fell the sky dropped the sky over.

However if a verb does not directly follow the intra introductory phrase if the noun or the subject

follows then we need to have a comma after that introductory phrase.

We also use a comma after conjunctive adverb at the beginning of a sentence for example.

Nevertheless nevertheless the artist’s favorite medium is watercolor.

OK so after conjunctive adverbs like Nevertheless we need a comma when it’s at the beginning of a sentence

and also within this introductory phrase category we have interjections So we always need a comma.

If we have an interjection at the beginning of a sentence like.

No way.

I hope he’s OK.

Another time we use commerce is with independent clauses independent clauses or an independent clause

is a group of words that can be a sentence on its own.

So we need to use a comma when two independent clauses are combined using a conjunction.

So remember conjunctions or and or.

But cetera.

I love to read but I hate going to the library.

So I love to read as an independent clause.

It has a verb noun combination and I hate going to the library is also an independent clause.

It has its own verb and noun combination and when I’m putting these two together with a conjunction

but then we need to use a comma.

I love to read but I hate going to the library.

However you don’t need to use a comma when the two clauses share the same subject.

So I love to read but hate going to the library if you notice that’s actually the more correct way of

doing it because I’m sharing the subject.

I love to read but hate going to the library in the previous example if you would have used something

different then I in the second independent clause.

For example I love to read but my mom hates going to the library but my friends hate going to the library

or but my dog hates going to the library.

Then it would have been perfect.

Ok so for sharing the subject between both clauses then we don’t need a comma and we don’t need a comma

before the conjunction.

If we are changing the subject that is when we need a comma before the conjunction between two independent

clauses.

The next time we use commas or for restrictive or nonrestrictive modifiers So a restrictive modifier

is a word or phrase that modifies a noun and is essential to the meaning of the sentence and when that

is the case with a restrictive modifier we do not use a comma for example.

The album was very good.

A nonrestrictive modifier information that is not essential to convey the basic meaning of the sentence.

We need to use not only one comma but a pair of commas.

For example the album featuring Jennifer Lopez was very good.

OK so a nonrestrictive modifier has that information that is not essential.

The basic meaning of the sentence the basic meaning was the album’s very good but we’re adding information.

So we use a pair of comets to separate that extra information from the rest of the sentence.

We also use commas to separate two or more adjectives before a noun the movie is an unusual horrifying

example of online bullying.

So we have unusual and horrifying two adjectives before the now.

So we separate those with a comma.

Another critical place so we need to use commas is when we introduce a quotation.

My instructor said we should usually use a comma to introduce a quotation.

Case one reason.

A direct quotation we often will introduce that quotation with a comma.

However if the quotation is part of the sentence grammatically you don’t need to use a comma.

For example my instructor said that we should usually use a comma to introduce a quotation.

OK so I have my instructor said that that replaces the comma.

So an incorrect version would be.

My instructor said that comma we should usually use a comma to introduce a question or quotation sir.

So we don’t need a comma after that.

Another time when we use commers is dates and places place a comma after the day and before the year

and the month day year style of writing dates.

So August 19 2014.

So we don’t have a comma after the month so we have a comma after that day.

So between the day and the year we also use a common to separate the city from a state of the state

from the country.

For example Salt Lake City comma Utah or Utah comma USA.

The final place that we use commas is what are called elliptical constructions.

So it’s when we use a comma to show the omission of a word where the meaning can be inferred quite easily.

For example Susan bought ten books.

Henry comma two.

So the comma after Henry shows the omission of the word part because it can be inferred that sense Susan

bought ten books.

Henry is also buying to write.

Susan bought ten books Henry comma two.

Now onto the biggest mistake the students make in their use of commas.

Now would be what’s called a comma splice.

Comma splices when only a comma is used to separate two independent clauses.

So before remember we said if we have two independent clauses we need a comma and a conjunction.

Lots of students like to use a comma without a conjunction for example.

Try not to forget to take the muffins out of the oven when they are done.

The timer should go off in a few minutes.

Case we have two independent clauses separated by nothing but a comma and that is a comma splice.

Another thing students do too often is what’s called a fused sentence and that is when you combine two

independent clauses without any punctuation.

Try not to forget to take the muffins out of the oven when they are done the timer should go off in

a few minutes.

OK so we have two completely independent clauses separated with no punctuation.

We fuse those together so let’s look at some possible solutions.

Both of these.

First we could use a period to create two separate sentences out of the two independent clauses.

For example try not to forget to take them and muffins out of the oven when they are done period.

The timer should go off in a few minutes.

Something else we could do is to use a semi colon to connect two closely related independent clauses

so try not to forget to take the muffins out of the oven when they are done.

Semi-tone the top should be golden brown.

OK so when they are done is very closely related to the idea of the tops of the muffins being golden

brown so we can use a semi colon.

So we’re getting away from the Muffin’s team now.

I’m just talking about solutions of fixing comma splices or a few sentences the next way is to use a

colon to show a strong explanatory or sequential relationship between the two independent clauses.

For example I had to make an impossible decision colon to obey God or the government.

The final thing we can do is use a coordinating conjunction.

Again we use a comma or replace a column before the coordinating conjunction.

I am starving comma so I think I’ll order pizza.

OK so that gives you a basic crash course on commers and on the two most common mistakes students make

in their use of Commerce and with some some basic solutions of how to fix those.

So when you’re rereading or revising your papers look for places where you’ve used two independent clauses

and separated them only by a comma which is a comma splice where when you fused multiple independent

clauses together with no punctuation and use the solutions to fix that.

OK so if you have any questions about commas please let me know.

I’ll try to clear this up for you and that’s it for a first lecture on your punctuation.

Crash course.

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