Quotations and Citations

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Today’s we move on with our punctuation crash course we’ll be talking about quotations and citations

or how to punctuate quotations and citations.

So let’s look first at quotation marks.

We’re going to talk about when and how to use quotation marks.

The first is the most obvious when we use direct quotations.

So whenever we use direct quotations we use quotation marks around words or phrases taken directly from

another source.

For example Dr. Taylor argues that writing is the most effective way to learn to think critically.

However we did not use quotation marks when we paraphrase or summarize someone else’s ideas.

We still have to cite or show our source but we don’t use quotation marks unless we’re using a direct


What about block quotations.

So block quotations are when we have used you only have four or more lines of quoted directly quoted


We put it in a block when we do a block quotation though we do not use quotation marks.

Another time we do use quotation marks when we do when we use unusual words for example nicknames.

Growing up they called me tenderfoot TAYLOR So an unusual word.

We also use quotation marks when we are implying irony for example.

His evidence was not substantial enough to present in court.

So the ironic term evidence meaning the evidence wasn’t very good.

Another instance where we use quotation marks is t when we use a word as a word.

Sounds kind of funny but look at the example.

Try to avoid using very often as a modifier.

So very we’re using the word as a word.

And another time to use quotation marks is when we’re when we write out the titles of minor works so

short stories essays poems songs magazine articles newspaper articles speeches and chapters of books.

This is something many students mess up on continually so minor works use quotation marks and major

works such as books or epic poems movies magazines and so on.

Those are italicized.

OK now let’s talk about the other punctuation marks so we need to use together with our quotation marks.

For example commas and periods commas and periods always go on the inside of the quotation marks.


Research shows that smartphones are making teenagers dumber.

OK if you have a citation so name the page number in parentheses after the quotation marks.

Then we put the comma where period all the way on the end of the citation.

When there’s no citation present however than the period or the comma goes inside of the quotation marks

colons and semi-colons on the other hand go outside of the quotation marks except for when they are

part of the original quotation.

So an example would be.

There are a number of problems with his work.

Above all it is sloppy so the semi-colon is not a part of the original quotation work so it goes on

the outside of the quotation marks.

Likewise question marks exclamation points and dashes all go outside of the quotation marks.

Again unless they’re part of the original quotation.

So look at a few examples here.

When I asked if I could get a drink Rex yelled forget about it.

So they’re the exclamation point is part of the original quotation.

He was yelling.

So it’s part of it so goes on the inside and his next example the punctuation mark was is not part of

the original quotation and will therefore go on the outside of the quotation marks.

What does your mom mean when she said remember who you are and what you stand for.

So the question mark is not part of the original quotation and therefore goes outside of the quotation


What about when we need to use quotation marks within a direct quotation.

So quotation within a quotation uses single quotation marks.

For example Taylor argues as Luther states the law must be obeyed.

He is speaking of the Spirit not the letter of the law.

So here you are quoting from Taylor.

Taylor is quoting from Luther.

So there is a quotation within a quotation and that one receives single quotation marks and now as I

already mentioned before with parent article citations.

So an MLA an AP citation styles the period goes after the parentheses.

So here’s an MLA example.

He replied Whatever I feel like I want do.

Gosh and then the period goes at the end.

So dynamite 74 parentheses.

Period an EPA example dynamite 2004 replied Whatever I feel like I want to do.

Gosh and then we have the page number and after the the closing parentheses is where we put our period.

The final very important punctuation mark when we use quotations or citations is the ellipsis the ellipsis

is used to show an a mission from the original quotation.

One thing to remember though is when we do an ellipsis it’s not simply the triple dot period period


We actually need a space in between each period.

For example he replied whatever I want to do.


So we omitted we took part of that quotation and we filled that in with an ellipsis period space period

space period space and then we continue with the quotation.

OK and that’s it for punctuation for punctuating quotations and citations.

I know this has a lot to cram into one lecture.

That’ll be a good resource for you to come back to and again as always if you have questions let me


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