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In this crime section we’re talking about correlative conjunctions.
So let’s see what they are basically.
These are conjunctions that come in pairs and they act as a team in order to make these conjunctions
You have to use both of them in different places in a sentence these conjunctions also act as cohesive
devices because they connect words and phrases together so let’s look at some examples of that here.
We’re looking at the correlative conjunctions either and or.
Now notice that they come as a pair.
They work as a team.
So here’s our example.
Many ignore recycling either out of ignorance or laziness.
So this sentence can only convey its correct meaning if we use both of these correlative conjunctions
in different places in a sentence.
We can’t just use one of them.
Otherwise it doesn’t work.
Let’s look at another example this time we’re looking at both and here’s our example.
Vegetables are both nutritious and tasty.
Now I want you to notice that whenever we use correlative conjunctions a comma is not usually used between
the two components of a correlative conjunction.
OK so we don’t usually use a comma.
However there is an exception and that exception is that if there are other elements that are present.
So let’s look at an example of that.
Here we have the correlative conjunctions neither nor are sentences neither Germany which only grew
by 2.5 percent nor France saw significant growth in banana sales now here you’ll notice that we’ve used
a comma with which and the reason for that is that in this sentence There are other elements present.
So what are the other elements in this case.
The word which is a relative pronoun.
So in this case we’re adding extra information right in between the two components of the correlative
conjunction so in order to separate this extra information we use a comma to make it clear to the reader
we’ll explore relative pronouns in much more detail in the next video.
I want to now explore the structure of the correlative conjunctions because there’s a very specific
structure to these conjunctions.
The most important thing about their structure is that the first part of the pair should always be exactly
parallel in form to the structure.
After the second part.
So basically in other words nouns should be linked to nouns adjectives should be linked to adjectives
prepositional phrases to prepositional phrases and so on.
So let me show you what I mean.
Here we have two versions of the same sentence.
One is the incorrect version and the other is the correct version so here’s the incorrect version.
Parents should neither yell at their children nor be punishing them.
Now I want you to notice that here we have our correlative conjunction neither.
That’s the first part of the conjunction.
And nor is the second part of the conjunction.
So what we’re saying is that whatever comes after the first part of the conjunction should be exactly
parallel to what comes after the second part of the conjunction so here you can see that the verb yell
is not parallel in form to the second part B punishing if we want to make these Forbes parallel what
we need to do is change the B finishing part to punish.
Okay because then we have exactly parallel verbs on the one hand we have yell on the other hand we have
So now the structures are parallel.
The correct sentence is parents should neither yell at their children nor punish them so that’s what
we mean by parallel structures.
Let’s look at more examples of this.
Here we have the incorrect sentence.
I used to love both swimming competitively and to play golf.
Here are correlative conjunctions are both and.
And so after the first part of the conjunction we have swimming which is a continuous form of the verb.
And after the second part of the conjunction we have to play golf.
This is the base verb.
So you’ll notice that the form of the verbs are completely different in the first part and the second
part so in order to correct this sentence we have to make the verbs exactly parallel to each other.
So how do we do that.
Well we have to change to play into playing so the correct sentence would read.
I used to love both swimming competitively and playing golf.
Now the structures are parallel on the one hand we have swimming and on the other hand we have playing
swimming and playing now they’re parallel in their structure.
Here’s another example vegetables.
Not only are delicious but also healthy.
Here is the first part of the conjunction.
Not only And here’s the second part but also now this sentence is incorrect because after the first
part of the conjunction we have a verb R and an adjective delicious whereas after the second part of
the conjunction we only have one adjective so in order to correct this sentence we have to remove this
r and change its location.
We have to move it after vegetables so the correct sentence would read.
Vegetables are not only delicious but also healthy.
So you’ll notice now after the first part of the conjunction we have one adjective and after the second
part of the conjunction we also have one adjective healthy.
So now the structures are parallel here’s our last example.
Parents can either send their children to a traditional school or to a home school.
Our correlative conjunctions here are either and or so after the first part of the conjunction we have
send their children to a traditional school.
You’ll notice that we have a verb over here send whereas after the second part of the conjunction we
don’t have any verb.
We just have a preposition an article and a noun so if we want to make the sentence parallel in its
structure here is what we need to do.
We need to change this part over here send their children we need to move this part before the first
part of the correlative conjunction so the correct sentence would read.
Parents can send their children to either a traditional school or a homeschool.
Now the structures are parallel because after the first part of the conjunction we have an article and
a noun phrase.
And after the second part of the conjunction we also have an article and a noun phrase.
I hope that’s clear for you.
Now let’s take a look at a list of correlative conjunctions.
Here are some of the most common correlative conjunctions as and as both and either or neither nor not
but not only but also.
And lastly whether or so you can see that these correlative conjunctions are fist pumping each other.
And that’s because they work together as a team.
So that’s all for this section on correlative conjunctions.
Our ship will now be sailing to the next grammar section which is relative clauses.
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