Vocabulary for Comparative Graphs

دوره: IELTS Writing Task 1 Academic / فصل: Part 1 - Ingredients / درس 15

Vocabulary for Comparative Graphs

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All right.

In this video we’re going to be looking at the vocabulary words that you need when describing comparative

graphs in your task one essay so if you’ll remember this is what the comparative graphs look like.

We can have a comparative graph as a bar graph as a pie chart or a table so we have a comparative graph

whenever we have a static snapshot in time.

So unlike a trend graph where we have changes that are being described over a period of time in a comparative

graph we don’t have a period of time.

All we have is just a set of data as a static snapshot.

Now I want to make a note about the vocabulary words that you’re going to learn for describing the comparative

graphs.

I want you to note that whenever you’re writing a task one essay you have to compare data in all types

of writing questions.

Okay so that means that you have to compare data in the trend graphs you have to compare the data in

the comparative graphs in the process diagrams and in the maps.

Okay.

So it doesn’t matter what type of writing task one question you have.

You always have to compare data in all types of writing questions.

However in the comparative questions you have to especially make comparisons because you don’t have

a period of time to describe all you have is just comparisons.

So comparisons become particularly important for comparative graphs so let’s look at the vocabulary

words that you need to make comparisons.

So first we’re going over the short adjectives here we have our adjective and here we have the form

of the adjective when we’re comparing two items.

And here we have the form when we’re comparing three or more items.

Notice that when we’re comparing two items we add an E R at the end of the word and when we’re comparing

three or more items then we add an E S T at the end of the word.

For example if you’re talking about the adjective high and you want to compare two items then you may

say that one is higher than the other.

Whereas if you’re comparing three or more items then you may say that one item is the highest out of

all the listed items.

So let me give you an example sentence.

You may say the growth rate of banana sales was higher than grapes or if you’re comparing three or more

items then you may say the growth rate of banana sales was the highest out of all the listed fruits.

Similarly here is our next adjective.

If you’re talking about the adjective low then you can use lower than when comparing two items or you

can say the lowest.

If you’re comparing three or more items for example you may say the number of cars sold in France was

lower than in the U.K.

or if you’re comparing three or more items then you can say the number of cars

sold in France was the lowest out of all the listed countries similarly whenever you’re comparing any

of these adjectives here then you can use this form to compare two items or you can use this form to

compare three or more items.

So here we have the adjectives big great large small strong.

We have some more adjectives here short slow quick fast sharp slide and long.

Now these were the short adjectives.

Now let’s take a look at long adjectives the adjective popular is an example of a long adjective it’s

long because when you’re comparing two items with this adjective you have to say more popular than or

if you’re comparing three or more items then you have to say the most popular so with short adjectives

such as high when you’re comparing two items you can just say higher than or if you’re comparing three

items.

You could say the highest unlike the short adjectives when you’re comparing long adjectives.

You have to say more popular than or the most popular.

So that’s the difference between the short adjectives and the long adjectives.

So let me give you an example of a sentence.

Now if you’re talking about the adjective popular you may say something like mobile phones became more

popular than computers or if you’re comparing three or more items you may say mobile phones became the

most popular out of all the listed technological devices.

Here we have another adjective rapid.

So if you’re comparing two or more items you may say something like the growth of mobile phones was

more rapid than computers or if you’re comparing three or more items you may say the growth of mobile

phones was the most rapid out of all the listed technological devices.

Similarly whenever we’re comparing two items we use this form here.

And when we’re comparing three or more items we use this form here for all of these listed adjectives.

So here we have sudden striking abrupt gradual consistent.

Here we have some more adjectives marginal significant considerable substantial dramatic drastic and

remarkable.

So before you take your child’s exam make sure that you know how to use the short adjectives and how

to use the long adjectives to compare two items and to compare three or more items now sometimes you

may see irregular adjectives.

So here are some examples of the irregular adjectives.

So the adjective good is irregular because to compare two items you cannot just add e r at the end or

if you’re comparing three items you cannot just add e s t at the end.

So for example if we’re comparing two items we don’t say good or That’s wrong.

If we’re comparing three or more items we don’t say good est that’s also wrong or we say better and

best.

So here’s an example sentence you mean say something like the growth of Apple sales was better than

mango sales but banana sales performed the best.

Next we have the adjective bad.

So if we’re comparing two items we say worse.

If you’re comparing three or more items we say worst.

All right.

So similarly we have all these irregular adjectives here to compare two items.

You use this form of the irregular adjective and to compare three or more items.

You use this form.

So we have the adjectives much many or some.

So for all these adjectives we use the same form when comparing two items and we use this same form

when comparing three or more items then we have the adjective little.

We’re not talking about size here we’re talking about little in terms of amount.

Then we have late in this case we’re talking about time.

And here we have late again this time we’re talking about order.

All right.

Now you may remember from our discussion on the banned descriptors that to get a good score on the lexical

resource category you have to use a wide range of vocabulary so to show this wide range you can use

what are called negative comparatives.

So instead of only using positive comparisons you can also use negative comparisons to show off your

range.

So here are some examples.

So on the left hand side we have a positive comparison.

And on the right side we have a negative comparison.

So to make this comparison there are two ways.

So here we have an example sentence the United States has a larger size than Australia.

That is a positive comparison.

On the other hand you can make the same comparison by saying the size of Australia is not as large as

United States.

So note that here the meaning is the same in both comparisons.

However you can show off your range by using some positive comparisons and some negative comparisons

here’s another example.

Mobiles are more popular than fixed line calls to turn this into a negative comparison.

You can say fixed line calls are not as popular as mobiles.

Here’s our last example the demand for bananas grew faster than apples for a negative comparison.

You can say the demand for apples did not grow as fast as for bananas so in your task one essay if you

want to show off your range of vocabulary you can throw in some positive comparisons as well as negative

comparisons.

All right now let’s talk about the degree of difference in the same way that we use words like much

slightly on significantly to describe the degree of difference with positive comparatives we can do

the same with negative comparatives so let’s look at some examples.

Here we have a line graph for our example so let’s say that you’re describing a degree of difference

which is very small in this case.

You can use an expression such as not quite as dash as.

So here’s our example sentence the growth of hydropower is not quite as much as nuclear energy.

Here is another example where we have a big degree of difference.

If we have a big degree of difference we may say not nearly as dash as.

So here’s our example sentence.

Coal is not nearly as popular as patrol and oil.

So you’ll notice that the difference between patrol and oil and coal is quite big whereas the difference

between nuclear and hydropower is quite small.

Here’s our final example.

If you have a degree of difference that is very big.

For example here we’re comparing hydropower to patrol.

So here’s patrol and here’s hydropower in such a case we can use the expression nowhere near as dash

as.

So here’s our example sentence.

Hydropower is nowhere near as popular as patrol.

So you can describe these degree of differences using positive comparisons with words such as much slightly

or significantly or you can describe this difference using negative comparisons so that concludes this

video.

I’ll see you in the next video in which we’re going to talk about the vocabulary words that you need

for describing process diagrams.

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