Second Ingredient Cohesion and Coherence
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In this video I’ll talk about the second ingredient which is coherence and cohesion.
So first let’s start with some basic information.
According to the banned descriptors if you want to get a band 7 or higher.
This is what you need to do.
Firstly you need to logically organize your information and ideas with a clear structure so we’ve already
discussed the structure in the previous section where we talked about the task achievement.
But I wanted to mention it again over here so that you can see that a good structure is also part of
the cohesion because it allows your essay to naturally flow from one paragraph to the next next.
You need to connect your sentences and your paragraphs together with cohesive devices cohesive devices
include words like however.
Moreover furthermore therefore etc.
So to sum it up cohesive devices are basically just words and phrases
that link your ideas together and make your essay flow smoothly.
It is this kind of flow to your writing that makes you sound fluent essentially cohesive Devices Act
as the glue that stick your sentences and your paragraphs to each other.
Now let’s see how the different cohesive devices work together in a paragraph.
So here’s an example and all the words that are highlighted in the pink color are your cohesive devices.
I want you to also notice that we have some relative clauses over here and also some conjunctions some
of them are subordinating conjunctions whereas others are coordinating conjunctions so take note that
relative pronouns and conjunctions also act as cohesive devices because they glue your sentences together.
Now although relative pronouns and conjunctions act as cohesive devices we’re not going to be discussing
these in this section.
Instead we’re going to discuss the relative pronouns and the conjunctions in our grammar section which
is the next section.
Now let’s take a look at some examples of these cohesive devices we can use cohesive devices for many
So let’s go over some of the different uses firstly you have the overview when you’re trying to give
an overview on certain data then you can use any of the words that are listed here.
These words and phrases are also used to introduce basic information about the infographics.
Next we have opening.
So when you’re opening your sentence or opening a new paragraph you can use any of the words and phrases
Next we have sequence.
We often see sequence in process diagrams where you have a number of steps and stages described in a
So when you’re describing the different steps or stages of a process you can use the words and phrases
listed in this column.
Next we have additions.
A lot of times you will need to add more information in your paragraph.
Usually we use these words and phrases when starting a new sentence to add extra information.
Next we have comparison.
A lot of times you will need to compare the two different datasets especially when it comes to comparative
graphs so you can use the words and phrases listed here.
Next we have contrast.
This is similar to comparison you may need to compare and contrast the data between two different types
of infographics or data sets.
Next we have cause and effect.
We use this when we want to express that something happened as a result of something else you may need
to use these.
Cause and Effect.
Words and phrases when describing process diagrams.
Next we have emphasis.
Sometimes you may see striking differences in a graph or a chart or you may see interesting changes
or turning points.
There may be certain data points which you want to emphasize.
In this case you can use these words and phrases listed here.
Next we have illustration illustration is used if you want to illustrate something you can use these
words and phrases here to give examples and illustrate different data.
Next we have qualification qualification is something that we use when we’re adding a condition to a
sentence so to add a condition we use words like although unless except you’ll see more examples of
this when I do the practice questions in the recipe section of this course.
Next we have reference so you may need to reference back to some information which you’ve already mentioned
so that you don’t have to repeat the same information again and again.
In this case you can use these words and phrases here.
Next we have clarification.
Sometimes you may want to clarify what you mean so that your meaning is clear to the reader in this
You can use the words and phrases listed here.
Here are some more words and phrases that describe the different durations of time.
This is going to be especially helpful to you when you’re describing trend graphs.
This is because in a trend graph you have to describe a period of time.
So this means that when you have a graph or a chart in your data there’s going to be a beginning a middle
and an end.
So for example if you want to describe the beginning of a certain dataset you can use phrases like in
the first half of the year or at the start of the period and so on.
If you’re describing a certain duration then you can say something like over the period covered by the
graph or if you have a range of dates you can say something like from the year 1990 to 2000 or you can
say something like between the years 1990 and 2000 and so on.
You get the idea and here are the phrases that you can use to describe the end of a dataset or the end
of a process.
So now let’s talk about paragraphs.
There are two main part two paragraphs in the first part is how to organize and arrange your paragraphs.
We’ve already talked about that so I won’t be mentioning that again.
The other part of paragraph ing is the format of your paragraphs so essentially you have two options
when it comes to the format of your paragraph.
The first option is that you can indent each paragraph or the second option is that you can skip a line
when you start a new paragraph.
So let’s look at examples.
Here is the first option where you can indent the paragraph.
This means that every time you start a new paragraph you should leave some space before you write the
first word in a new paragraph.
So since we have two paragraphs here we leave some space here at the beginning of the first paragraph
and we leave some space here at the beginning of the second paragraph.
These are called indent and this is your first option your second option is to skip a line so on the
aisles answer sheet you’re going to have lines on which you’re going to write your answer.
All you need to do is that when one paragraph ends you need to skip a line before starting the next
So that means that between any two given paragraphs there must be a line which you skip so feel free
to choose any of these two options that work for you.
Just make sure that you don’t mix the two formats.
All right do not mix them and also make sure that you don’t change them midway just choose one format
and stick to it.
So that’s it for this video in the next section we’ll go over the third ingredient.
We’ll be talking about grammatical range and accuracy.
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