Form

توضیح مختصر: A look at how to create the illusion of form on a 2-Dimensional surface. Concepts covered include turning shapes into forms, using shadow to further the illusion.

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Welcome to the third video and the secrets to drawing video course and this video we’re going to talk about the next element of art form. Before we begin let’s define what form means in terms of art form is a three dimensional object. We exist in a world full of forms. It’s important for us to understand that we are creating drawings we are creating an illusion. In fact we’re creating the illusion of form. So how can we create this illusion of form on a two dimensional surface. Well the key to creating the illusion of form is actually twofold. There are two things we need to keep in mind. The first we must understand that forms have more than one side unlike shape forms have length width and height and we need to include that in our drawings . Secondly we need to understand that forms are affected by light and produce distinctive areas where this illusion of light manifests. Now let’s take a look at a few shapes and how we can turn those shapes into the illusion of a form on a two dimensional surface. We’ll begin with one of the most basic geometric shapes. A square. Now when we begin with a square we only have two dimensions in order to add the illusion of three dimensions . We’ll add a few more lines. We’ll add three lines from each of three of the corners of the square and then we’ll connect those lines to create the illusion of a cube. Once these lines are added We have addressed the first thing that we need to do to create the illusion of form on a two dimensional surface. But there’s more we need to do to create this illusion further we need to addressed how light is going to manifest as an illusion in our drawing. We do this by adding shadowing. In the case of the cube we have one side that’s dark. We have another side that’s kind of middle of the road dark and in the case of this illustration we have one side that’s completely light. We also have shadow that comes from the back of the cube on the opposite side of the light source. Now these shadows and areas have names. The first the darkest area on this cube is called the core shadow core shadow a shadow that exists on the object next. The shadow that results from the opposite side of the light source that’s cast upon another object is called a cast shadow. Then we have basically the local color. In this case we call it the mid-tone the middle of the road value we used for shadowing. And then on top of this cube we have what’s called the highlight. This is the area of most intense light. These areas work together to create the illusion of form on a two dimensional surface. In this case we’ve taken a square a two dimensional shape and turned it into a cube. Now let’s take a look at another shape and turn it into a form or actually the illusion of form. This time we’ll take a look at a triangle and we’ll turn it into a pyramid. We’ll begin this drawing by just drawing a flat triangle. Now we need to add the extra side. We do this by adding a couple more lines. Now we can address how light manifests on the form. Again we’ll have a core shadow mid-tone and it cast shadow in the case of the pyramid this side has the core Shadd the darkest area on the form that creates a shadow. Secondly the shadow that’s cast upon another object again is the cast shadow. In the case of the pyramid we have a mid-tone the highlighted side is not seen by the viewer but it’s important for you to understand that that side of the pyramid would receive the highlight or the strongest area of intense light. So here again we’ve taken a triangle and now we’ve turned it into the illusion of a pyramid. Let’s take another shape and turn it into a form this time a circle and we’ll turn it into a sphere . Now I know that sometimes people struggle with drawing circles. But here’s a little trick that I’ve picked up. If you draw with your shoulder and keep your wrist straight you’re going to have better success with the circle. In fact I start to move my pencil around in a circular motion then slowly bring it down to the surface of the paper and I make several circles. You always have a better chance of winning the lottery if you buy several tickets. So why not make several marks on your surface with a little practice you’ll get great at drawing circles . Now that we’ve got our circle drawn let’s start to add some of that shadowing to create the illusion of form in the previous video we talked about cross contour lines. So as I’m adding shadowing to the surface of the sphere I’m thinking about my cross contour lines. Now in the case of a sphere unlike the cube in the pyramid there should be a gradation of shadowing that happens because the sphere is rounded. There’ll be a smooth transition from dark shadow to the highlight. So here we see the core shadow on the sphere. We also have a cast shadow underneath. Notice that the cast shadow is circular or actually more like an oval shape to reflect the form of the sphere. We also have a mid tone and a highlight as well . So here again we’ve taken a circle and created the illusion of a sphere. Now a cube a pyramid and a sphere are all geometric forms. You’ll remember in the last video when we talked about shape we talked about geometric and organic shapes . The problem is a lot of the forms that we’re trying to create are not just geometric forms. They’re organic forms. So here let’s take an organic shape and turn it into an organic form. Remember we’re trying to create the illusion of light here. So we need to have shadow. We need to have a core shadow. We need to have a mid-tone and a halide only object. And we also have to have a cast shadow that comes from it. So when I’m adding shadow to this organic shape I’m thinking about where my light source is originating from I’m putting the shadow on the opposite side from that light source on the object. I’m also putting the cast shadow on the surface away from the organic form on the opposite side of the lightsource. Here we can see our cast shadow. We also have core shadow. We have a less prevalent mid-tone but it’s still there and in the case of this demonstration we have a large area of Halwai . So let’s take a look at another example. I’m sure you’re all familiar with the drawing mannequins that you can pick up at your art store. Well a drawing mannequin is basically the human form broken down into individual segments of form drawing mannequins are actually great for practicing drawing forms and creating that illusional two dimensional surface. Here you can see I’m beginning my drawing by drawing the individual shapes that I see on the mannequin . Remember I’m really observing my subject matter. In fact I’m looking at my subject matter half the time taking that information and putting it on my paper. Don’t forget that drawing is at least 50 percent observation at this time. I’m gathering information about the shapes then I’ll take the shapes and create the illusion of form by adding shadowing in a consistent manner with the light source. So now that I’ve got the shapes drawn I can begin to add the shadowing. Now I’m still looking at my object as I’m adding the shadows. I need to understand which side of the forms have the darkest values or have the core shadows. I need to understand where the mid tones exist and if there’s any cache shadows on any other parts of the manakin I need to understand where those are. Remember all the information is on the subject matter that you’re drawing. All you have to do is look for it find it and put that information on your paper. I’m also not neglecting the fact that line is important in this drawing and that I need to enhance the line quality . Most of the forms that make up this man and he can are somewhat cylindrical. This means that there are a little bit rounded because of this. Most of the shadowing that ad is going to be similar to the shadowing that we put on the sphere. It’s going to start dark and slowly grade 8 to a lighter value . When you are drawing the illusion of form on a two dimensional surface. Don’t forget to make sure that your light source stays consistent. You can insure this by making sure that all the dark areas on your forms or your core shadows are on the same side of all the forms within that drawing in the same manner. Make sure that your highlights are consistent as well . Now what did we learn in this video. Well first we learned in terms of art form is a three dimensional object. Secondly we learned when we’re drawing we are creating an illusion and we need to create the illusion of form in order to do this. We learn that forms have more than one side. We need to include that in our drawings. We also learned that forms are affected by light and produce distinctive areas where the illusion of light manifests in the next video we’re going to take a look at this a little bit deeper and explore value and the importance of a light source and a drawing