Vocabulary for Comparative Graphsدوره: Mastering ielts writing task 1 academic / فصل: Writing the Response (Lexical Resource - Vocabulary) / درس 2
Vocabulary for Comparative Graphs
- زمان مطالعه 6 دقیقه
- سطح متوسط
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متن انگلیسی درس
In this lecture we’re going to move from vocabulary for cross of the trend to look at vocabulary for comparative graphs. So more looking at pie charts and bar charts and tables and those sorts of things where periods of time are not involved. Let’s have a look at a comparative graph on the right hand side. Here we have what is called a stacked bar chart. And in this kind of graph graphs without time trends these are best discussed with the use of comparative grammar. First and foremost but we’ll look at that in section 6 because Section 6 the grammar section. But as well as comparative grammar we can use a varied number of vocabulary and the language of composition number language is just a way of different ways we can describe numbers and the language of composition is simply how we can refer to these numbers as part of the whole. You look at some examples in a moment. Let’s start by looking at a number of vocabulary instead of listing figures directly for example. There are 280 literature students and 360 computer science students. Try thinking about how you can compare these numbers in a different way. For instance there are 280 literature students but 80 more students take computer science. This allows us to use comparative language as well as changing vocabulary. There are 280 literature students 80 fewer than the figure for computer science students. There are 280 literature students approximately 25 percent less than the total number of computer science students. And finally to look at a different example. There were 360 computer science students which is around twice as many as the figure for mathematics. This is called a numerical comparative where we use a number inside the comp. itself. So twice as many three times as many four times as many half as many. These are all numeric comparatives which you can use. Now let’s have a look at a different chart. This is a pie chart and pie charts often talk in terms of percentages rather than regular cardinal numbers for example to 465 or 12 or whatever. So here we have percentages in these cases. Consider how you could use fractions to present data. Use these with the language of composition which we’re going to talk about in a moment to make really strong sentences. So for example wind power constitutes almost a tenth of energy sources eight percent with solar power accounting for 4 percent more just over a third of all energy is composed of gas power. But the largest portion consists of coal power and a little over two fifths with 44 percent of total output. So 8 percent is close to 10 percent 10 percent is a tenth 36 percent is close to thirty three point three percent which is a third. And 44 percent is close to 40 percent which is two fifths because one fifth is 20 percent now notice the Italic verbs here these are important for what we’re going to talk about now which is the language of composition and the language of composition is basically how we can relate those numbers to the whole. Let’s have a look at this in more detail by returning to the previous bartók particularly useful this language when discussing pie charts or stacked bar charts and certain tables. But there are a number of ways that we can use it. Let’s start by looking at the idea of putting the hole at the beginning. And when I say the whole I mean literature or mathematics or history or computer science rather than the age groups. So the age groups are individual parts which make up the whole but the whole itself is the category along the x axes. Let’s have a look at how this works. There are two ways that we can write about this. We can write in the active voice or the passive voice. They do exactly the same thing but let’s have a look at the active First of all literature consists of one hundred and ten students in the youngest age group. That picture comprises 50 44 to 56 year olds. They do exactly the same thing. They mean the same thing but it’s good to have a variety so that you don’t repeat yourself. Let’s look at the passive voice where there are a couple of more. History is composed of 18 80 to 30 year olds. History is made up of 80 students aged 31 to 43. And history is formed of 40 of the eldest age brackets is composed of is made up of is formed of make sure that if you are looking at a graph in the past you just move these to the past tense. Now this is the case when we’re looking at the hole at the beginning of the sentence. But we can also put the hole at the end of the sentence. But then we need to use some different verbs. So notice that we’re putting mathematics students literature student history students computer science students which make up the whole. At the end of the sentences. So 18 to 30 year olds make up a significant portion of mathematics students students aged 57 to 69 constitute the minority of mathematics students and students in the 31 to 43 age brackets account for a moderate portion of mathematics students. Notice that these are all in the active voice there are no passive voice expressions that we can use here. So try using varied number vocabulary along with the language of composition when attempting your next comparative task one graph in the next lecture. We’re going to look at maps and processes.
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