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Vocabulary for Processes

توضیح مختصر

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  • زمان مطالعه 5 دقیقه
  • سطح سخت

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متن انگلیسی درس

Let’s move on to vocabulary for processes. Now as with maps there are many variables when it comes to processes. However we can be sure of a couple of things occurring every time. First of all process talks will always need to discuss stages because stages are an essential part of the definition of a process. As a result we need to have a variety of stage language ways of talking about stages process talks. Also often use the language of composition which should sound familiar because we looked at that in the previous lecture on comparative graphs therefore we need to know two things how to use the language of composition to describe processes and how to describe stages in a variety of ways. Let’s start by looking at the stages again. Another familiar looking table here we have four different columns beginning middle and and same time. And I want you to look at the expressions at the bottom of the screen and see if you can match those expressions to the columns above. Again you can pause the video here. And when you think you’ve got those together you can carry them. OK. So let’s have a look. Now notice here that there are not many expressions for beginning and end and. And at the same time this is because unless we’re looking at more than one process which is possible we should only need one phrase from the beginning and end columns because there’s really only one beginning and one end. But there are often more stages in the middle. That’s why we need lots of expressions here. For example if you’ve got a process made up of eight stages there’ll be one beginning one end and six middle stages. So it’s important that we have a wide range of vocabulary for those middle stages. Now let’s look at the language of composition. The language we used to talk about processes can be quite similar to the language you use to talk about pie charts and stacked bar charts as we mentioned earlier. We just need to modify it a little bit to fit our needs. Let’s have a look at this process here. Looking at central heating in a house and just follow through this with me. Overall the process of heating a home is composed of a number of steps whereas hot water reaches the taps via a sequence made up of three steps more stages are required for the radiators to be heated and then we can use it also in the detail paragraphs of to which the boiler which is a container consisting of gas or oil hits the water. So let’s see if we can put all of these things together just like previously with the maps and come up with a decent high quality task one response. We’re going to look at this process over here looking at cement production and concrete production at the top. You can see we have mostly stage language because we wouldn’t really use composition language in the first image but in the second image there’s a lot of different percentages and things just like you saw with the pie charts all those percentages that composition language can be very helpful there. So the second paragraph focuses more on composition language. So again if you could pause the video here and see if you can fill in the gaps using the first letters to help you. And when you think you’re ready to continue. OK. So let’s have a look and see what we’ve got. So let’s go through these together. Start with paragraph 1. If we look at the details of cement production initially limestone and Clay are crushed together to form a powder. Next the powder is mixed by a mixture of after which it is passed through a rotating heater after being heated. It is then ground by a grinder before being packed into bags as cement. Now we focus on the second paragraph focusing on the manufacture of concrete. This is made up of four components half of concrete is composed of gravel. A quarter consists of sand and water constitutes a tenth the remainder is formed of the earlier produced cement. This formula is combined together using a horizontally rotating concrete mixer to create concrete. Now you might be a little bit confused here by this composition language because in the previous lecture we talked about looking at the hole at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the expression. But here in the place of the hole you can see language like half of concrete and a quarter and at the end expression a tenth. Now this is still ok although it doesn’t seem like a whole. It is still a hole. It is the whole of that half. It is the whole of that quarter. And it is the whole of that tenth. So the whole of half of concrete gravel goes into that. So gravel goes into half of concrete so it’s still a hole but it’s just used in a slightly different way. If you would like more clarification on this idea please ask in the comments because I know it’s a little bit tricky this composition language particularly in processes but hopefully that gives you a good idea of how to use this language when talking about processes to try and use this language for processes and try and use the compass and verbs and now phrases when looking at maps and see how you get on with paraphrasing the vocabulary.

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