Vocabulary for Maps

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In this lecture we’re going to look at vocabulary for maps and processes and this is the final specific task type that we will look at in relation to vocabulary. So let’s start by looking at vocabulary for maps. So as I’ve said before there are many variables with MAP tasks but most look at the differences between an old map and a newer map. Whether that’s the present or more recent past because of this map tasks required to impose some features appropriate grammar. Usually the present perfect passive particularly of the mappings from today or possibly the past simple passive or the past perfect passive and appropriate vocabulary. Now we’re going to focus on the vocabulary aspects because this section is all about vocabulary. Now this appropriate vocabulary mostly consists of two things verbs and noun phrases. When talking about changes to the maps and compass language we’re going to start with verbs and noun phrases then move to complete language. So let’s look at the verbs First of all. Now this exercise should look familiar. By this point at the bottom of the screen you can see a number of verbs some phrasal verbs in there as well. What I want you to do is to see if you can match them to the types of changes in the columns above. So each of the titles of these columns describes a different change adding things taking things away making things bigger changing things into other things and generally changes. So see if you can pause the video now and match the verbs to their respective columns. And when you’re ready click play to continue OK. Let’s see if you’ve got these rights. Hopefully you have these right. Most of these are pretty self-explanatory but if there’s any that you got wrong just make sure you look them up in a dictionary and see how they use them. Feel free to ask a question with the question function of you to me you can see these in a larger form here. It may help to pause the video and go through any of the ones that you didn’t know. Now what about noun phrases now phrases are also very important. So I would use try to use both in your response because they show a variety of vocabulary that we can create nouns from the verbs that we’ve already looked at. Now here are a selection of those verbs. Not all of the verbs but a selection of those verbs along with a few others. Now I want you to see if you can work out what the nouns are of each of these verbs. And again if you pause the video just go through them in your mind to write them down and then play the video. When you think you’re ready. OK let’s see what you’ve got here. So hopefully you have all of these. Most of them or a lot of them have similar endings with a couple they were a little bit different. So construct construction demolish demolition introduce introduction open opening remove removal disappeared disappearance and over on the right hand side you can see the sions you’ve got expansion an extension for expand and extend develop development and then we’ve got the sions again finishing things off pedestrian eyes pedestrianisation modernize modernization transform transformation. Now you can see an example of how we might use a noun phrase just here. Another interesting development has been the transformation of the part you’re trying to show that it’s changed. OK. And we don’t have to use noun phrases we might just news nouns on their own such as in this example in the center of the city the railway station has undergone an extension. So we’re not saying the extension of the railway station which would be a noun phrase but we’re just using the noun alone. Notice that we have some other language here is what we’ve got in the center of the city that helps us to really be specific about where this change is happening. Now let’s go into more detail about this. Not using the word Center exactly but focusing on a round the sensor different directions. And this is where compass language comes in handy. Have a look at this image here. This is of fancy looking compass but it’s good for illustrative purposes so many people forget their compass points when they need them the most. However there is an easy trick to remembering the names of these points. And I use this quite a lot for when I struggle to remember the names. Now I want you to follow these letters clockwise. So 12:00 to 3:00 to 6:00 to 9:00 o’clock. Starting with North which is 12 o’clock Naughtie East which is o’clock elephants south which is 06:00 stands for squirt and W for West which is at 9:00 which is water. So what you do in your mind is that you follow through each of the compass points around the clock so naughty elephants squirt water and that helps you that little sentence there funny little sentence helps us to remember the first letters of each of those compass points which helps us to be more accurate when we’re responding to the task. Now let’s see how we can use these compass points when we’re actually describing these maps. Now the compass points will be used in different ways depending on how we’re trying to use them to begin with. If we’re looking at a space within the whole town the city village whatever we use the proposition in. So a new set of houses have been built in the north west of the town now have a look at the grid to the right use the compass in the top right to help you where would you imagine these houses to come up on your screen when you’re ready you can press play. Hopefully your eyes were trained on that top left grids there. The north west of the town in the town. Now we’re trying to describe a position in reference to another position where we use the expression to plus the plus compass point plus of for example a hospital has been constructed to the east of the new house. Now if you look at the screen look at the grid again where would you imagine a hospital to appear. Hopefully you you imagine that it would appear to the right of the house so to the east of the new house so we use that to the compass point of this structure but to save time. It is possible for us to drop the two the parts of the expression and we can also add a just or if you want to include the to the just to the to express that the two places are very close to each other. For example a hospital has been constructed just east of the new house so we don’t need the two but we can do a hospital was being constructed just to the east of the new house that’s also an option. It’s up to you this is even the case if the other position we are citing in reference to is the town or city itself. OK. So you can look at this example here to the south east of the city. A supermarket has been constructed. Again have a look at the grids maybe even look outside of the grid. Where would you expect the supermarket to appear on your screen. Hopefully you’re looking down in the bottom right hand corner. The southeast to the southeast. So that’s outside the city in reference to the city. Finally we can also refer to the direction in which longer structures travel like roads and train tracks and parts. So here we simply use the From and to structure a new motorway has been laid. Stretching is a nice verb there for roads stretching from north to south west. And again I want you to look at your screen and imagine where this road is going to appear and also which direction it’s going to go in. There’s going to be a curve here somewhere. Where is that curve going to be. OK let’s have a look. So you can see it starts there in the north comes down goes down to the south but also to the left so to the west as well so to the Southwest doesn’t matter which direction you speak about. And you could say stretching from south west to north it doesn’t really have a direction in terms of a beginning an end. So it’s up to you which where you order it. Now let’s see if we can use this map language here we have on the right two maps and one is from 1995 and one is from 2010. So a more recent past but still the past that means that we’re going to use a mixture of the past simple passive and the past perfect passive. So using a mixture of compass language and the language for describing map changes. See if you can fill in the gaps of this response to a map task. There’s quite a lot to fill in here so I’d recommend pausing and see if you keep seeing if you can use the language that we’ve already spoken about to fill in these gaps and then when you’re ready you can hit play to continue. OK. So let’s see if you got the right answers here and we’ll go through them together. Now I don’t want you to worry too much about the grammar in this part because we’re going to come to that in a grammar lecture. So let’s just go through the vocabulary and read these out. If we look at the development east of the city center it can be seen that the trees in the southeast were knocked down to make way for a new airport. And the houses just north of this area were replaced by skyscrapers further north the old church was demolished and by 2010 a new pub had been built in its place in the center itself. The main road was pedestrian ised and a new station was constructed across the road from the southern station a new football stadium was also erected to the east of the old station across from which stands a new shopping center which had replaced the factory by 2010. Finally apartment blocks now exist in place of the northwest and forest which was cut down after 1995. Notice with this compass language we can also use adjective forms of the compass points like Southern station and North and forest and therefore we don’t need to use those propositions.

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