06 - Practice Makes Permanentدوره: Coursera – Learning How to Learn / درس 6
06 - Practice Makes Permanent
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متن انگلیسی درس
Yep, that’s me when I was 10.
I loved animals, handicrafts, and
Back then, I was the belligerent queen of
I neglected, ignored, flunked, and
downright hated math and
science all through grade school, middle
school, and high school.
It’s strange to realize I’m now a
professor of Engineering.
I enlisted in the army right out of high
school to study language at the Defense
That’s me at 18, looking very nervous
and very focused while throwing a hand
I only started to study math and science
was 26 years old, after I got out of the
At first, it was really hard.
There were all these quick thinkers in my
seemed to get everything a lot easier and
faster than me.
Sometimes I’d take a break for a few
go out and work as a Russian translator on
That’s me up in the Bering Sea.
And I’d come back to school and try and
learn some more.
As I gained technical know-how, new doors
started opening up for me.
I ended up working as a radio operator at
the South Pole Station in Antarctica.
That’s where I met my husband.
I always say I had to go the end of the
Earth to meet that man.
Here he is, after only 10 minutes outside
at minus 70 degrees Fahrenheit with a
The wind chill takes it off the charts.
Now, I wasn’t natural in math and science.
Not at all.
The way I succeeded was to gradually begin
to figure out some tricks.
But let’s back up a step.
In the greater scheme of all the different
careers and disciplines that people
can pursue, why are those involving math
and science, sometimes, a bit more
We think it may be related, at least in
part, to the abstract nature of the ideas.
I mean, let’s take a cow for example, out
standing in a field.
If you have the word cow, you can point
right to a cow to learn what that word
Even the letters for the word cow, C-O-W,
are roughly analogous to sounds that they
But for mathematical ideas, there’s often
no analogous thing that you can point to.
There are no plus signs standing out in a
No multiplication, division, or other
kinds of things that
can directly equate to mini mathematical
or scientific terms.
These terms are more abstract, in other
Well, you might say, yeah, but what about
ones like love, zest, or hope?
Those are all abstract.
Yes they are, but the thing is, these
abstract terms are often related to our
We can feel our emotions, even if we can’t
and point to concrete examples, like we
could with the cow.
This means it’s important to practice with
ideas and concepts your
learning in math and science, just like
anything else you’re learning.
to help enhance and strengthen the neural
connection your making during the learning
You can see on your left here the symbolic
representation of a thought pattern.
Neurons become linked together through
The more abstract something is, the more
important it is to
practice in order to bring those ideas
into reality for you.
Even if the ideas you’re dealing with are
neural thought patterns you are creating
are real and concrete.
At least they are if you build and
strengthen them through practice.
Here’s a way to picture what’s going on.
When you first begin to understand
something, for example, how to
solve a problem, the neural pattern from
is there, but very weak.
Kind of like the faint pattern at the top
of our pinball machine analogy here.
When you solve the problem again fresh
from the start, without looking at the
You, if you begin deepening that neuron
pattern, kind of
like the darker pattern you see here in
And when you have the problem down cold,
so you can go over
each step completely and concisely in your
mind without even looking at the solution,
and you’ve even had practice on related
problems, why then, the pattern
is like this dark firm pattern you can see
towards the bottom of the pinball frame.
Practice makes permanent.
When you’re learning, what you want to do
is study something.
Study it hard by focusing intently.
Then take a break or at least change your
focus to something different for awhile.
During this time of seeming relaxation,
your brain’s diffuse mode has a chance to
work away in the background and help you
out with your conceptual understanding.
Your, your neural mortar in some sense has
a chance to dry.
If you don’t do this, if instead you learn
by cramming, your knowledge base will
look more like this, all in a jumble with
everything confused, a poor foundation.
If you have problems with procrastination,
you want to use the Pomodoro, that brief
This helps you get going, using brief
each day of focused attention, that will
you start building the neural patterns you
to be more successful in learning more
Next stop, we’ll be talking about
chunking, the vital
essence of how you grasp and master key
I’m Barbara Oakley.
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