23 - Summary for Module 2

دوره: Coursera – Learning How to Learn / درس 23

Coursera – Learning How to Learn

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23 - Summary for Module 2

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[SOUND] In this video, I’m going to


some of the main ideas of this week’s


In other words, we’ll chunk our week on


Here we go.

Chunks are pieces of information,

neuroscientifically speaking, that

are bound together through use and often

through meaning.

You can think of a chunk as a


network of neurons that compactly

synthesizes key ideas or actions.

Chunks can get bigger and more complex.

But at the same time, they’re a single

easy to access item that

you can fit like a ribbon into the slot on

your working memory.

Chunks are best built with focused,

undivided attention, understanding of the

basic idea.

And practice to help deepen your patterns

and to help you gain big picture context.

Simple recall, trying to remember the key

points without looking at the

page, is one of the best ways to help the

chunking process along.

It seems to help build neural hooks.

They help you better understand the


Also try recalling material in places that

are different from where you originally

learned the

material, so it becomes more deeply


and accessible, regardless of what room

you’re in.

This can be very helpful for tests.

Transfer is the idea that a chunk you’ve

mastered in one area can often help

you much more easily learn chunks of


in different areas that can share

surprising commonalities.

Interleave your learning by practicing

your choice of

different concepts, approach, and

techniques all in one session.

Chunks are very important, but they don’t

necessarily build flexibility, which

is also important in becoming an expert

with the material you’re learning.

Illusions of competence in learning.

Learn to recognize when you’re fooling


about whether you’re actually learning the


Test yourself frequently.

Using little mini-tests to see whether

you’re actually learning the material, or

whether you’ve been fooling yourself,


you’re learning when you’re actually not.

Recall is actually a form of mini-testing.

Try to avoid depending too much on

highlighting, which can fool you into

thinking that the material is going into

your brain when it actually isn’t.

Mistakes are a good thing to make when

you’re learning.

They allow you to catch illusions of


Avoid practicing only the easy stuff,

which can

bring the illusion that you’ve mastered

the material.

Deliberately practice what you find more


to gain full mastery of the material.

Einstellung is when your initial thought,

an idea

you’ve already had in mind, or a neural

pattern you’ve already developed well and

strengthened, prevents

a better idea or solution from being


Or keeps you from being flexible enough

to accept new, better, or more appropriate


The Law of Serendipity is helpful.

Lady Luck favors the one who tries.

Just pick one tiny thing out to learn,

then another.

Just keep trying and you’ll be pleasantly

surprised at the results.

I’m Barbara Oakley.

Thanks for learning about learning.


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