24 - Optional Interview with Dr. Norman Fortenberryدوره: Coursera – Learning How to Learn / درس 24
24 - Optional Interview with Dr. Norman Fortenberry
- زمان مطالعه 0 دقیقه
- سطح خیلی سخت
دانلود اپلیکیشن «زوم»
این درس را میتوانید به بهترین شکل و با امکانات عالی در اپلیکیشن «زوم» بخوانید
متن انگلیسی درس
For this interview, it’s a pleasure to
you to one of today’s leading figures in
how to learn more effectively, Dr. Norman
executive director of the American Society
of Engineering Education.
Dr. Fortenberry is MIT cubed.
That is, he has his bachelors, masters,
in mechanical engineering from the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Because of his interest in learning,
Norman took an unusual career path.
After teaching his first engineering
he realized that there was the disconnect.
He knew a great deal about his research
but he didn’t know about how to teach
The reality is, that most new professors
their universities without any training in
how to teach effectively.
Dr. Fortenberry wanted to do something
about this problem.
His work at the National Science
Foundation and the National
Consortium for Graduate Degrees for
Minorities in Engineering and Science have
helped create a whole network of support
for faculty in science,
engineering, math, and technology who want
to help students learn effectively.
In this interview, we’ll get some
practical ideas from Dr.
Fortenberry on how you can most
effectively approach your studies.
Thank you so much for being here, Dr.
I’m just so impressed.
I have to ask you.
Here you are.
You landed at MIT, which is one of the
top educational institutions, at least
technologically-speaking, in the world.
And you successfully climbed your way up
ladder all the way through to get your
Let’s cut past the generalities and get to
What were some of the most, most
worthwhile tricks and approaches
that you used to help you study and learn
Well, MIT is, is a very good
institution and not just technologically.
For example, it has one of the
top political science departments in the
But, that said, the techniques that, that
I pursued, the first and foremost
was to recognize that what worked in high
school will not work in college.
In high school, you’re taught to, well
actually, most of Pre-K,
you’re taught you’re to do your own work,
study alone, etc.
That is deadly.
In college, at least in engineering
expectation is that you’re part of a
The expectation is that there are course
and course bibles that are all over
There’s an expectation that you have
access to resources that
if you don’t have access to, you’re in
So you have to make sure that you live up
to that expectation by
making the connections to the people who
have the resources that you need to
The key lesson in, in collegiate study, at
in engineering school, is you are part of
And if you don’t have a team, you find a
If you are a team, you maximize the team.
But you have to be part of the group.
Engineering is a team sport.
You know, all the, all the stereotypes
are about the lone engineer, the lone
But it’s a team sport.
And you have to find your team as quickly
as possible and make sure
that the members of that team are very
serious about their studies as well.
Your competition at MIT included some of
the top students in the world.
How did your, you approach your studies so
that you could
find things in a way to keep yourself from
I was intimidated.
I was extremely intimidated.
What it took was reminding myself and
others remind me, my peers, some of the
administrators, to remind me that I didn’t
become less smart once I got to MIT.
There were some extremely bright people,
but I was one of those bright people.
And that I needed to build a community of
support around me.
I gave support.
I received support.
So yes, you are entirely intimidated.
At least I was, and people I knew were.
But we knew that if we worked together as
a team, we would make it through.
And so, that was they key was to remember
the objective is to learn the material.
The objective is to finish the class.
Even in grad school, the objective is to
get the degree.
And you keep your eye focused on the
and you fight it out, and you get through.
Early on in your college career, you
took a more advanced calculus course-
That most people don’t usually take, at
least at that stage.
I understand this set you back in your
Yes it did.
How could you have avoided this
scenario, and how did
you keep going in the face of facing
failure and, and hardship?
Well the, the way to avoid the problem
to, is to, so this is all about balancing
I should have done what the overwhelming
of students did, which was take the
track calculus and not take the Calculus
Applications, which everybody said was the
But I said, but it has application, so if
going to be an engineer that makes sense
for me to do.
There are times when there’s wisdom in the
wisdom of the crowd.
There are times when being lemming is not
the brightest thing in the world to do.
The challenge is figuring out which is
But I think I could have informed my
decision by not only
talking to my peers, but talking to some
grad students and some
administrators, you know, counseling
deans, et cetera, about that choice and my
background in calculus, which was not
strong because I hadn’t taken calculus
I was handed an AP book and that was,
that was my calculus class senior year in
so, so the, the thing is to recognize when
one is making
a reasonable choice and when one is not
making a reasonable choice.
Now, how did I persist?
I buckled down and studied very hard,
again with the study groups.
And I spent a lot of extra time going over
two and three different ways to make sure
that I understood it.
Okay, so what do you do to help prompt,
sort of, what we call
diffuse mode or neural resting states, the
perspectives you get from those kinds of
In your, your research, in your work, how
do you, how do you prompt those?
Well I think it’s very important, the
point that you make.
One of the stories that I tell people is
you know, it’s okay to keep your nose to
There are plenty of people, at that point,
about MIT, plenty of people walking around
with no noses.
But if you keep your nose to the
grindstone too long, you begin to cut into
And since brain is what you’re trying to
use, that’s counterproductive.
So it is important to take a break.
My breaks involve total mental turn-off.
I wa, I read cartoons in the, in the
newspaper or watch cartoons on television.
I watch some of the, now, I watch some of
the silliest, most inane,
television shows, as a form, without
naming any names, as a form of relaxation.
That allows me to turn off my conscious
brain, your unconscious work.
It’s a lot like taking a nap.
You know, there’s so many things coming at
you and pushing on you, that you have to
redirect your focus in order for your
work on background and come up with the
So, so, I do things.
Some people exercise.
I used to exercise more.
I need to exercise more.
But I do things that shut my brain down in
Well, we share a little, my guilty
is, I, I love to read the National
That would work, too.
Many of our viewers have brothers and
and friends who are trying to learn new
So, reflecting back on your own childhood,
and even your
work today, how have other people helped
you in your learning?
And, did, did people sometimes help you,
perhaps, by not helping you?
And, do you have any practical suggestions
viewers, who are trying to learn how to
There’s very practical guidance on
learning how to learn in, in any number
of publications and online in, in terms
of a, a systematic process for acquiring
Some things I used with my son when he was
terms of using as many different modes of
input as you can.
Write it out by hand so that you’ve
got the muscle memory, repeating it back
See it, say it, spell it, whatever.
As many input modes, you’ve got your
auditory learners, your visual learners.
You, you saturate yourself with learning
That’s one of the reasons why people need
to be careful when you have a
faculty member or a teacher to put
on, on overheads or, or Powerpoints these
And you just take their overheads and
don’t really study them.
The, the mechanical act of writing helps
you to internalize that material, as
well as going back over the notes again,
helps you to internalize that material.
So, multi-mode input is critical for
again, with the study groups and
challenging each other, because
what you, what you think you know, you
when you try to explain it to somebody
why teaching is one of the best ways to
But even if you don’t go full blown to
tutoring somebody else, just in discussing
it with a set of peers and colleagues,
okay, this is what I think I know.
And they challenge you.
Okay, well that’s not what I thought I
thought, but let me explain.
And they will either, you will either
validate what you thought,
or you will find a, the fallacy in what
And they do the same thing.
And so you help each other by explaining
material to each other.
If you just write it out, yeah I’ve got
Well, you may not have it, or you may have
And so you have to take the time to
explain it, teach it, whatever, to
somebody else as a
way to make sure that you, in fact, have
what you think you have in terms of your
I think active learning like this,
grappling with it and using information
your own mind, that’s the best way to know
you’ve really got it within your own mind.
So, you’re exactly right.
Norman, thank you so much.
مشارکت کنندگان در این صفحه
تا کنون فردی در بازسازی این صفحه مشارکت نداشته است.
🖊 شما نیز میتوانید برای مشارکت در ترجمهی این صفحه یا اصلاح متن انگلیسی، به این لینک مراجعه بفرمایید.