Word Formation

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Everybody welcome back. Continuing on with our theme of lexical resource in this section we’re going to focus on a word formation in this lecture. So as you can see their success successful successfully succeed and those are the words we’re going to focus on as an example to help us move into this lecture. So first of all word classes word classes. Let’s look at those words again. Success successful successfully succeed. What do you notice about these words or hopefully you realize that each of these words has their root which is success in common but they all vary in their form in their class. So each of these words is a different class of word. Which one is which while we have success which is a noun we had successful which is an adjective we have success for successfully which is an adverb. And we have succeed which is the verb if you want to succeed in ild it’s very important that you are capable and competent with word classes. First and foremost and word formation. Secondly and that’s what this lecture is going to focus on. So you use all of those words together in order to be successful in eilts you need to succeed in using of word formation. Only then will you find success. So can you successfully modify these words. That’s what we’re going to look at. We can modify all of these words by way of word formation and word formation can come in three different kinds. It’s all about the modification of base words by way of prefixes suffixes and compounds. And we’re going to look at these things in turn starting with prefixes so prefixes What are these prefixes are bits of language which are added before the base or stem of the word. You should recognize a couple of these examples here on successful. Here are an represents remove reverse or not under perform under here means less than or beneath. Over estimate. So over here. Meaning too much. You’ve estimated too highly. In this example. So you can research prefixes and use these to boost your score in lexical resource. Let’s give you an example about a decent enough sentence but one which we can improve by way of prefixes teenagers who do not agree with their parents beginning of a sentence. How could we improve that. Teenagers who dis agree with their parents. You may think this looks quite simple but that’s a good thing. If you think it looks simple then just remember to apply it to your essay and this will help you score highly in lexical resource. Bear in mind that there are a huge number of prefixes in the English language far more than can be stated here. So make sure you do your research and look up prefixes after the lesson today after prefixes. We can look at suffixes whereas prefixes change language at the beginning of a word of the stem of a word suffixes will be added after the base of a word and these suffixes are usually added to change the class of word. So remember the word success. Think about this success. We could add full on to the end of success. That’s our suffix full and forget full. So if we add full on to the end of a word we can often form an adjective successfully. Crucially Lee can form an adverb from an adjective widen length then simplify clarify so N and if Y can form verbs whereas terrorism sex ism ism can often be used to form nouns. This doesn’t. Always work. You can’t just be adding suffixes random suffixes to random words. You do need to check with a good dictionary. But it’s good to know that you can create these words if necessary. Again research suffixes very important you do your research because there’s many more here than the ones I’ve highlighted and you can use these to boost your score again in lexica resource. So again let’s have a look and an example. One advantage of exercise is that it makes your body stronger it makes your body stronger. How could we use word formation to improve this. One advantage of exercise is that it strengthens your body. You may think this looks simplified in a way simpler because we’ve use fewer words but actually that is a good thing. You want to be concise with your language and we can be much more concise with our language if we know how to use suffixes appropriately and the other way we can think about word formation is with something called compounds. Now compounding is the linking of two or more base words to create a new word for example. Heart breaking. You’ve got the noun with the verb. Often the first word identifies a key feature of the second word. So have a look at some examples they’re most commonly found in nouns but they are found in all types of word classes. For example here are some nouns. Air conditioning the air modifies the conditioning black board the Black modifies the board full moon adjectives full fat spine-chilling sea sick is all adjectives created from two base words some verbs here baby sit colour code proofread notice often with the verbs we’re going to stress that first word and adverbs. You’ve seen these once before but these are also adverbs created from compounding words together. Nevertheless they’re by good naturedly. So lots of different words we can create from compounding. Unfortunately I often get this question. There are no specific rules regarding when to use hyphens in words when to use dashes. So when in doubt you will need to consult a good learner’s dictionary and just try to memorize that word memorize the words that use hyphens memorized the words that don’t use hyphens and memorize the words that are just joined together without hyphens. Unfortunately there are no rules there. So although this is not the longest lecture it’s still a very important lecture because it’s such a simple way to improve your score in lexical resource.

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