How to Write Specific Details for Comparative Graphs

دوره: IELTS Writing Task 1 Academic / فصل: Part 2 - The Recipe / درس 13

How to Write Specific Details for Comparative Graphs

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So now that you know how to write the specific details for trend graphs we’re now going to look at how

to write the specific details for comparative graphs.

So in this video I’ll take you through several different practice questions to show you exactly how

it’s done.

So here’s our first practice question.

We have a comparative bar graph here.

You’ve seen this question before when we wrote our introduction and the overview in previous videos

so I won’t be going over this question prompt here.

However if you need to read this question prompt again then you can simply post a video and do so so

let’s move on to writing the specific details so the process of writing the specific details is exactly

the same no matter which type of infographics you get.

So similar to the trend graphs in the comparative graphs you also have to split your info graphic into

two halves.

So let’s go ahead and do that in our third paragraph.

We’re going to be talking about these data points here.

We’re only going to be talking about cars and computers.

So let’s take a look at our first sentence categorically.

The French population spent four hundred thousand pounds on cars while the British exceeded this expense

by about seventy thousand pounds so here we’re saying that the French population spent four hundred

thousand pounds on cars whereas the British population exceeded this amount by about 70000.

So the UK spent about seventy thousand pounds more on cars than France.

Notice that here we’ve used the word while to form a complex sentence.

So whenever you’re comparing two different data points you can use subordinating conjunctions such as

while whereas and so on to form complex sentences.

Now let’s look at our second sentence in our second sentence.

We’re talking about computers on the other hand the French spent a total of about three hundred eighty

thousand pounds on computers which was thirty thousand pounds more than what the British spent

so here were simply describing the spending of France on computers which is about three hundred eighty

thousand pounds.

And we’re also stating this specific detail which is the spending for UK.

So we’re saying that the UK spent about thirty thousand pounds less than what the French spent so in

this paragraph.

I’ve decided to talk about cars first and then I’ve talked about computers in the second sentence however

the arrangement of the information is completely up to you if you want to talk about computers first

and cars next.

That’s also fine let’s move on to our fourth paragraph.

Now for the fourth paragraph we’re going to be looking at the second half of our infographics.

So in the second half we’re going to be talking about books Perfume and cameras so let’s take a look

at the first sentence of our fourth paragraph moving on to other categories.

France invested three hundred thousand pounds in books whereas the British invested a little over four

hundred thousand pounds so here in our first sentence we’re talking about books.

We’re saying that France invested three hundred thousand pounds in books whereas the UK spent just a

little bit over 400 thousand.

So notice that since we’re estimating the number here we’re using the phrase a little over to maintain

accuracy now in our second sentence.

We’re going to talk about perfume in terms of perfume.

France expended two hundred thousand pounds while Britain was close behind so here we’re saying that

France spent two hundred thousand pounds on perfume whereas the British spent a little bit less.

Britain was close behind.

Now let’s look at our final sentence in which we’re going to talk about cameras.

Lastly the UK spent nearly three hundred and seventy thousand pounds on cameras while France only spent

about one hundred fifty thousand pounds so again we’re simply describing the data points here.

We’re saying that the UK spent nearly three hundred seventy thousand pounds.

Notice that we are estimating this number.

So that’s why we’re saying nearly to maintain accuracy so the UK spent nearly three hundred seventy

thousand pounds on cameras whereas the French only spent about 150000.

So now that we’ve described all the data points in the second half of our infographics our fourth paragraph

is now complete.

And with that our entire task one essay for This comparative paragraph question is also complete since

we’ve already written the introduction and the overview in previous videos and we have written the third

and the fourth paragraph in this video.

Our task one essay for this practice question is now complete so it’s time to move on to our next example.

Here we have a comparative table you’ve seen this question before as well.

When we wrote the introduction and the overview.

So now let us move on to writing the specific details.

So again we follow the same process.

We have to split this table into two halves.

Now you’re completely free to split this table in any way that you want if you want to split this table

horizontally like this.

Then you can do that or if you want to split this table vertically then you can do that as well so in

my example I’m going to split this table vertically so in my third paragraph I’m going to talk about

these two columns and in my fourth paragraph I’ll talk about this column.

Now if you want.

It’s also fine to discuss just this column in the third paragraph and talk about these two columns in

the fourth paragraph.

You can do that as well.

Remember you’re completely free to arrange this information in any way that you see fit.

The important thing here is to describe the important data points in the two halves of your info graphic

so let’s go ahead and take a look at our third paragraph.

Here is our first sentence regarding food drinks and tobacco.

Turkey was the highest spender at thirty two point fourteen percent followed by Ireland twenty eight

point nine one percent and Spain eighteen point eight percent so in this sentence we’re describing all

the highest data points for this category we’re saying that Turkey was the highest spender at thirty

two point one four percent followed by Ireland meaning that Ireland was the second highest spender at

twenty eight point nine one percent and Spain was the third highest spender at eighteen point eight

percent.

So here we’re simply describing the top three data points for food drinks and tobacco now in our second

sentence we’re going to be describing the lowest data points.

So we’re going to talk about Italy and Sweden Italy and Sweden spend sixteen point three six percent

and fifteen point seventy seven percent respectively.

So here we’re simply describing the lowest data points by saying that Italy spent sixteen point three

six percent and Sweden spent fifteen point seven seven percent now in our next sentence.

We’re going to be describing the performance for this category.

Clothing and Footwear.

So first we’re going to be describing the highest and the lowest data points.

So here’s our sentence considering clothing and footwear.

Italy spent more than any other country 9 percent as opposed to the lowest expenditure which is visible

in Sweden at five point four percent.

So here we’re simply describing the highest data point and the lowest data point now in our final sentence.

We’re going to be describing the remaining data points.

The other three nations spend an average of about six point five percent each.

So here what we’ve done is we’ve simply combined the data points for Ireland Spain and Turkey because

we only have about five minutes to write the third paragraph so for that reason we’re going to keep

our final sentence really short by simply combining these countries.

So here we’ve just taken an estimated average notice that this six point five percent is not an exact

average it’s about six point five percent so with that our third paragraph is now complete.

We’ve talked about every single data point for these two categories.

Now it’s time to talk about our final category which is leisure and education so let’s move on to our

fourth paragraph and write the first sentence moving on to laser and education.

Turkey invested four point thirty five percent followed by Sweden which invested three point to two

percent so in this sentence we’re talking about the two highest data points which belong to Turkey and

Sweden.

So Turkey spent four point three five percent.

And Turkey was followed by Sweden which was the second highest spender at three point twenty two percent

now in our next sentence.

We’re going to be describing these remaining data points Italy Ireland and Spain expended a total of

three point two percent to point to one percent and one point ninety eight percent respectively.

So here we’re saying that Italy spent three point two percent.

Ireland spent two point twenty one percent on Spain spend one point ninety eight percent.

Remember that whenever we use the word respectively it means that the part that comes before in the

sentence is directly related to the part that comes after in the sentence.

So the word respectively also shows us the order of the information so in this sentence here is our

order.

Three point two percent is referring to Italy to point to 1 percent is referring to Ireland and one

point ninety eight percent is referring to Spain so if you want to state a list of data points in a

particular order then the word respectively can be really useful.

So since we’ve talked about all the data points in our final category our fourth paragraph is now complete.

And with that our task one essay for the comparative table practice question is also complete so we’ve

written the introduction and the overview in previous videos and in this video we finished the third

and the fourth paragraph for specific details.

Now let’s move on to our next example this time we have a pie charts question in this question we’re

going to be comparing these two pie charts here.

So again you’re completely free to split this information in any way that you want.

For example if you want you can talk about the first pie chart in the third paragraph and you can talk

about this second pie chart in the fourth paragraph.

On the other hand you can also split this information like this.

So for example in the third paragraph you can talk about heating water heating and other appliances

and then in the fourth paragraph you can talk about the remaining energy sources so feel free to choose

whatever is more convenient for you.

In my example I’m going to be splitting this information by energy sources so let’s go ahead and take

a look at a third paragraph upon a closer look.

It is evident that heating contributes to about two fifths of the total energy consumed in Australian

homes while only leading to 15 percent in greenhouse emissions making it the least detrimental category

so when the sentence were first talking about heating.

We’re saying that heating contributes to about two fifths of the total energy notice that instead of

saying 42 percent we’re saying two fifths to show off our vocabulary.

If you want You can also just write 42 percent that’s fine but if you want You can also describe this

number as a fraction so heating contributes to about two fifths of the total energy consumed in Australian

homes and heating.

Also releases the least greenhouse gas emissions which is only 15 percent so this makes heating the

least detrimental category.

Now you may be wondering that there are data points which are lower than 15.

So how can we say that heating is the least detrimental category.

Well the reason for this is that if you look at the ratio of the energy use to the gas emissions you’ll

find that heating has the best ratio.

For example cooling here has the lowest data point.

The greenhouse gas emissions are only 3 percent however.

Here you can see that for every two percent of energy use it contributes 3 percent to gas emissions

so when we look at which energy source is the least detrimental we have to look at which energy source

has the best ratio here’s another example.

Here we see that 4 percent of the energy is used for lighting however for every 4 percent of energy

use it contributes to 8 percent of greenhouse gas emissions so this means that lighting is polluting

the environment in exactly double the proportion so I hope that’s clear for you.

So for that reason we’re saying that heating is the least detrimental category so we’ve talked about

heating in our first sentence.

Now we’re going to talk about water heating followed by heating is water heating consuming up to one

third of the energy and leading to 32 percent of the hazardous emission so here we’re saying that following

heating meaning that the next highest data point is for water heating so instead of saying that water

heating uses 30 percent of the energy we’re describing it as a fraction we’re saying up to one third

of the energy.

So again we’re not saying that it’s consuming exactly one third we’re saying it’s consuming up to one

third.

So meaning that it can be a little bit less which it is since one third is 33 percent.

And here are data point is 30 percent now in the sentence.

We’re also saying that water heating contributes to 32 percent of the hazardous emission.

So the hazardous emission that we’re talking about is the greenhouse gas now so far we’ve talked about

heating.

We’ve talked about water heating and now we have to talk about other appliances.

So here’s our final sentence finally unspecified appliances consume 15 percent of the energy while emitting

almost a quarter of the total greenhouse gas.

So instead of saying other appliances we’re using a synonym here we’re saying unspecified appliances

consume 15 percent of the energy while at the same time emitting almost a quarter of the total greenhouse

gas.

So a quarter is 25 percent.

So we’re saying almost a quarter.

So 28 percent is close to 25 percent.

So we’re saying that unspecified appliances contribute to about a quarter of the greenhouse gas emissions

that we can see in this entire pie chart.

So now our third paragraph is complete let us move on to our fourth paragraph This time we’re going

to be talking about cooling lighting and refrigeration so here’s the first sentence

surprisingly refrigerator and lighting only use 7 percent and 4 percent of the total energy respectively.

But pollute in precisely double the proportion.

So here we’re saying that lighting and refrigeration are the most detrimental categories because refrigeration

and lighting only use 7 and 4 percent of the total energy.

However they pollute the environment in exactly double the amount so in this sentence we’ve talked about

lighting and refrigeration.

So in our next sentence we’re going to talk about cooling finally cooling expense the least power in

Australian homes are just 2 percent and also accounts for the lowest percentage of total greenhouse

emissions at 3 percent but it too pollutes in a higher proportion than the energy it utilizes so here

we’re saying that cooling uses the least amount of energy in Australian homes and although cooling accounts

for the lowest percentage of the total greenhouse emissions that are listed here it is still detrimental

to the environment because it also pollutes in a higher proportion than the energy it utilizes so it

only utilizes 2 percent but it pollute in a higher proportion at 3 percent.

So now that we’ve described the second half of our infographics our fourth paragraph is now complete.

And with that our task one essay for this pie charts question is also complete.

Now we’re going to move on to our final example for the comparative graph questions so here we have

a mixed chart question.

You’ve seen this question before as well.

When we wrote the introduction and the overview.

So now let’s write the specific details so first we’re going to split this info graphic into two halves.

The easiest way to split this is to talk about the pie chart in the third paragraph and talk about the

table in the fourth paragraph so first let’s look at our third paragraph in detail overgrazing represented

the primary cause of global land depletion at more than a third followed by deforestation and over cultivation

which accounted for 30 percent and 28 percent of land damage respectively.

So here we’re describing the top three data points.

We’re saying that overgrazing was the leading cause of land degradation at 35 percent followed by deforestation

at 30 percent meaning that deforestation was the second highest contributor and the third highest contributor

was over cultivation at 28 percent notice that here.

We’ve decided to describe this data point as a fraction.

We’re saying that it contributed to more than a third of land degradation.

Now let’s talk about this data point here unspecified causes were responsible for the remaining proportion

of worldwide land deterioration at 7 percent so here instead of saying other we’re using a synonym unspecified

causes and we’re saying that these unspecified causes were responsible for the remaining land degradation

or in our case we’ve used the word deterioration which is a synonym.

That means the same thing.

So now that we’ve talked about every single data point in our pie chart our third paragraph is now complete.

So let’s move on to our fourth paragraph This time we’re going to be talking about the table so let’s

begin conversely causes of land damage varied significantly between regions so here for just making

a very general statement that the amount of land damage was different depending on the region Europe

was the most affected region with nearly a quarter of its land degraded nine point eight percent from

deforestation seven point seven percent from over cultivation and 5.5 percent from overgrazing So here

we’ve simply described all the data points in the parentheses.

So if you want.

It’s OK to describe the data points in the parentheses but make sure that you don’t overuse this.

It’s better to show the examiner that you know how to describe the data points in many different ways.

So now that we’ve described the data points for Europe let us move on to our next sentence here.

We’re going to be talking about the data points for Oceania Oceania also underwent substantial land

decline primarily due to overgrazing.

So here we’re saying that Oceania also underwent substantial land degradation.

However the main cause of the land degradation experienced by Oceania was due to overgrazing which contributed

to eleven point three percent of total land degradation.

Now we’re going to move on to our final region which is north America.

So here’s our sentence finally North America had the smallest ratio of land degradation with a total

of only 5 percent out of which three point three percent was caused by over cultivation.

And one point five percent by overgrazing so in this sentence we’re saying that North America experienced

the smallest amount of land degradation with a total of only 5 percent out of which over cultivation

was responsible for three point three percent and overgrazing was responsible for one point five percent.

So now that we’ve talked about all the important data points in our table our fourth paragraph is now

complete.

And with that our task one essay for This mixed charts question is also complete as a general rule you

should try to describe all the data points in your graph or your chart.

However if you don’t have the time then you have to prioritize which data points are the most important.

And just describe those important data points so we’re going to end our video here.

I hope that writing the specific details for comparative graphs is now clear to you in the next video

I’ll show you how to write the specific details for process diagrams.

So I’ll see you there.

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