How to Write Introductions for Trend Graphs
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In this video I’ll be teaching you how to write the introductions for trend graphs so for our first
practice question we’re taking a look at a line graph.
This is what a writing task one question will look like on your exam.
You’re going to be given an info graphic.
And here you’re going to have a brief description about that info graphic.
And here you will receive the instructions for what to do in your task one essay.
Now the highlighted part in this question is a description of what the infographics is about what you
have to do for the introduction is you have to rephrase this question language in your own words so
let’s read this description together this description reads the graph below gives information from a
2008 report about consumption of energy in the USA since 1980 with projections until 2030.
So this description here is describing this info graphic so you can see that here we have a graph and
this is a 2008 report and it’s providing information about energy consumption from the years 1980 up
So some of it includes past data some includes the present data on some of the data include future projections.
So let’s take a look at how to paraphrase this question language into your own words for the introduction
so once again here’s the same question language which we’ve just read to paraphrase this question language
the first thing that you can do is to think about synonyms.
Think about what are some different words to communicate the same meaning so let me show you how to
do this instead of the word gives.
We can use the word shows shows is a synonym for gives instead of saying information.
We can see data instead of saying about we can say on.
Instead of saying consumption of energy we can say energy consumption instead of saying USA we can say
US population instead of saying since we can use the word from instead of saying projections we can
say forecasts and instead of saying until we can say up to so once we replace all of the original words
in the question language with our synonym words here’s what we have.
The graph shows data on energy consumption by the U.S. population from 1980 with forecasts up to 2030
you’ll notice that in this sentence we have deleted this part in our rephrasing.
We have not included anything about the infographics being a report from the year 2008.
OK this is not necessary information.
So I’ve decided to delete this.
But if you want You can also keep this information.
It doesn’t really matter.
Now the other thing that you can do to improve your paraphrasing is that you can change up the word
So for example we can use the words energy consumption after the words U.S. population.
We can move it right here.
We can also move this part from 1980 with forecasts up to 20 30.
We can move this part here after the word data if we were to change up the word order this is what our
paraphrased sentence would look like the graph shows data from 1980 with forecasts up to 2030 on the
US population’s energy consumption.
So this is what we mean by paraphrasing.
You have to take the original description of the info graphic from the question and you have to put
it into your own words never use the exact language that is in the question in your introduction.
Otherwise you’ll lose points for that.
You always have to rephrase it and put it into your own words.
I want you to note that in this example I’ve really broken down each of the synonyms to clearly show
you how this process works.
This doesn’t mean that when you’re taking your exam you have to sit down and break up each of the different
parts of the question language in this way.
This is just to show you what’s going on in my mind when I’m paraphrasing the question language.
So this is what is going on in my mind when I’m paraphrasing the question language I’m thinking about
which synonym words I can use.
And I’m thinking about how I can change up the word order of the question language.
Okay so that’s what you should be thinking about.
You should be thinking about what different synonyms you can use and how you can change up the word
Now let’s look at another example.
Here we have another trend graph.
This time we have a bar graph in this bar graph.
Here’s our question language and the question language reads the chart below shows the total number
of minutes in billions of telephone calls in the UK divided into three categories from 1995 to 2002.
So here’s the info graphic and it’s showing us data on the telephone calls in the UK from the years
1995 to 2002.
For these three different color types.
So let’s take a look at how to paraphrase this question language.
So here’s the question language.
And first we have to think about the different synonyms that we can use.
So instead of the word shows we can say demonstrates instead of saying the total number of minutes in
We can just say time spent instead of telephone.
We can say phone instead of UK we can say British residents instead of three categories.
We can see different types and instead of saying from 1995 to 2002 we can say between 1995 and 2002.
Now once we’ve replaced all of the original words and phrases with our synonyms here’s what the sentence
would look like.
The chart demonstrates the time spent on phone calls by British residents between 1995 and 2002.
Notice that in this sentence we have not mentioned this phrase here.
Different types we have not mentioned that there are different types of phone calls in our sentence.
So what we can do is we can insert this part at another place we can insert this part right here after
the word on also we can change the word order so we can move this part after the word residence.
We can move it right here.
So after we’ve done this this is what our paraphrased sentence would look like.
The chart demonstrates the time spent by British residents on different types of phone calls between
1995 and 2002.
So again notice that our paraphrased sentence looks very different from the original sentence however
the meaning of our paraphrased sentence and the meaning of the question language are exactly the same.
So that’s what you have to do.
You have to really paraphrase the question language so that it looks very different from the original
question of language but you have to do this without changing the meaning.
OK so the meaning has to stay the same but you’re paraphrasing should look very different from the original
question language once again on your child’s writing test.
You don’t actually have to break down the question language in so much detail as I’ve done here.
I’m only doing this to show you what’s going on in my mind when I’m rephrasing this question of language
let’s look at another trend graph.
This time we have tables in this table question.
Here is the description of the info graphic.
The description reads the tables below give information about sales of fair trade labeled coffee and
bananas in 1999 and 2004.
In five European countries so here we have the two tables and we have data on coffee and bananas from
five different countries.
I want you to note that here we have an asterisk.
This is the little star symbol we have this asterisk on top of the World Fair Trade.
Whenever you have an asterisk or this star symbol you have to look at the meaning of the word.
Down here sometimes in the task one question there will be additional information about this word or
there may be a definition about what this word means.
So in this case be sure to read the definition of this word fair trade basically means a category of
product for which farmers from developing countries have been paid and officially agreed fair price.
So this looks like a special word with a very specific meaning.
So when we’re paraphrasing I want you to note that we will not be using synonyms for this word because
it has a very specific meaning which is especially defined down here.
So we can use synonyms for other words when paraphrasing but we cannot use synonyms for this word so
let’s take a look at how to paraphrase this question of language.
So here’s the description.
And first we’re going to think of the different synonyms that we can use.
So instead of saying tables we can specify it as two tables since we have two tables in this question
instead of saying Give we can say contain I want you to note that the word contain is only a synonym
for the word give.
In this particular scenario in this particular context.
So the word contain is not really a synonym for the word give.
However in this particular context the word contain can be used as a synonym for the word give so when
you’re using synonyms make sure that they fit the context of the sentence next instead of saying information
you can see data instead of off we can see for we can replace free trade labeled with just fair trade
and we can replace countries with nations so once we’ve replaced all of the original words with the
synonyms This is what our sentence looks like.
The two tables contain data about sales for fair trade coffee and bananas in 1999 and 2004 in five European
nations to improve our paraphrasing.
We can also switch up the word order so we can move the words sales before the word data and we can
move the word nations after the word five so after using the synonyms.
And after switching up the word order this is what our final paraphrased sentence looks like the two
tables contain sales data for fair trade coffee and bananas in 1999 and 2004 in five nations of Europe.
I hope all of this is making sense so far and that you can see how easy it is to write an introduction.
All you have to do is use synonyms which are different words for conveying the same meaning and you
just have to change up the word order if you can.
And that’s all you have to do for the introduction.
We’re going to now look at our final example.
This time we have a pie chart question and in this pie charts question here is the description the description
reads The charts below give information on the ages of the populations of Yemen and Italy in 2000 and
projections for 2050.
So here we have data from Yemen.
Here we have data from Italy.
Here we have data from the year 2000.
And here we have projections from the year 2050.
Now let us paraphrase this question language.
Here is the description on first we’ll go through the synonyms instead of saying give.
We can say provide instead of information.
We can say data instead of on.
We can say about instead of populations we can say residents instead of projections we can say forecast.
And finally instead of using the phrase in 2000 and projections for 2050 we can just rephrase this entire
part as over a 50 year period because from the year 2000 to 2050 we have a period of 50 years so after
using all of these synonyms This is what our sentence looks like the charts provide data about the ages
of the residents of Yemen and Italy over a 50 year period.
Now you may notice that we haven’t used the word forecasts in our sentence here.
So what we can do is we can insert this word right here after the word data.
Do you remember what else we can do to improve our paraphrasing If you guessed changing up the word
order then you are correct.
So what we can do is we can move this part here over a 50 year period.
We can move this part after the word data and before the word forecast so once we’ve done that this
is what our final paraphrased sentence would look like the charts provide data over a 50 year period
including forecasts about the ages of the residents of Yemen and Italy so that’s what you have to do
whenever you’re paraphrasing the original question language.
Just think about the synonyms and think about how you can change up the word order in the next video
I’ll show you how to write the introductions for comparative graphs and I’ll take you through different
practice questions in the same way that I’ve done in this video for the trend graphs.
So I’ll see you there.
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