# How to Write Introductions for Comparative Graphs

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Welcome back.

In this video we’re looking at how to write introductions for the comparative craft questions so if

you’ll remember this is what a comparative graph looks like.

It’s a type of graph or a chart where we don’t have changes being described over a period of time.

We just have a static snapshot of some data.

So this is an example of a practice question that you may see on your eyelids exam.

In this example of comparative graph we have a bar graph and here we have a description of what this

So this description reads the chart below shows the expenditure of two countries on consumer goods in

2010.

So here we have the data for different consumer goods for two different countries France and the UK.

So now let’s look at how to paraphrase this description you’ll recall from the previous video that the

first thing that we do when we’re paraphrasing is we think of the different synonyms that we can use.

So in this case instead of saying shows we can say illustrate instead of expenditure.

We can say amount of money spent instead of two countries.

We can specify the two countries in this case.

We have France and the U.K.

finally instead of saying good we can say products so once we have replaced

all of these words with our synonyms.

This is what our sentence looks like the chart illustrates the amount of money spent in France and the

U.K.

on consumer products.

In 2010.

Now I want you to note that instead of saying the word products here we can specify the products that

So in our bar graph for example we actually have five different consumer products namely cars computers

books Perfume and cameras.

So instead of saying products we can list these products.

The other thing that you can do is you can change the world order so you can move this part on consumer

products.

You can move it right here after the word spend so once we’ve done all of that this is what our final

paraphrased sentence looks like the chart illustrates the amount of money spent on five consumer goods

cars computers books Perfume and cameras in France and the U.K.

in 2010 let us move on to the next example

this time we have a table question and here is the description of the table this description reads.

The table below gives information on consumer spending on different items in five different countries

in 2002.

So here’s our table and it’s giving us information about these products from five different countries

so let’s see how to paraphrase this will first look at the synonyms instead of caves.

We can use the word illustrates.

Now I want you to note that the word illustrates is not always a synonym for the word gifts however

in this particular context we can use the word illustrates as a synonym for the word gifts because the

word illustrates fits the context of the sentence we can use this word as a synonym so when you’re thinking

of the different synonyms that you can use.

I want you to think of different words that fit the context of the sentence the word that you use as

a synonym has to make sense let us move on instead of information.

We can say data instead of on.

We can say about instead of consumer spending we can say how much consumers spend instead of different.

We can use the word various instead of items.

We can say products and services and instead of five different countries we can specify exactly which

countries we’re talking about in this case.

We’re talking about Ireland Italy Spain Sweden and Turkey so once we use all of these synonyms This

is what our sentence looks like the table illustrates data about how much consumers spend on various

products and services.

In Ireland Italy Spain Sweden and Turkey in 2002.

Now it’s also possible to change up the word order in this sentence.

So let’s do that as well.

We’re going to move this part here after the word consumers so once we have done that this is what our

introduction looks like.

The table illustrates data about how much consumers in Ireland Italy Spain Sweden and Turkey spend on

various products and services.

In 2002 so that’s our paraphrased question language and that’s all we need to write for our introduction.

Remember the introduction is only one to two sentences long let’s move on to our next example this time

we have a pie chart question the chart below shows how energy is used in an average Australian household.

The second chart shows the greenhouse gas emissions which result from this energy use.

So here we have a description about both the pie charts that are in our info graphic so it’s telling

us that the first pie chart is about the Australian household energy use and the second pie chart is

about the greenhouse gas emissions that result from this energy use so let’s go ahead and paraphrase

this question of language will first look at the synonyms instead of saying the first chart and second

chart.

We can combine them together and simply say the two charts instead of shows we can say represent instead

of energy is used.

We can say the use of energy instead of average.

We can say typical instead of Australian household we can say household in Australia.

Instead of saying greenhouse gas emissions we can say emissions of greenhouse gas instead of a result.

We can say resulting and finally instead of saying use we can say consumption so once we use all of

these synonyms This is what our sentence looks like.

The two charts represent the use of energy by a typical household in Australia and emissions of greenhouse

gas resulting from this energy consumption.

Next we’re going to change up the word order so we’re going to move this word resulting here after the

word and so once we’ve done that.

This is what our final introduction looks like.

The two charts represent the use of energy by a typical household in Australia and the resulting emissions

of greenhouse gas from this energy consumption so that’s all you need to do when you’re writing or introduction.

You just have to paraphrase the description in the question language and you can do this in just one

sentence.

Now let’s look at our final example.

Here we have a mixed charts question.

So here’s the description for this info graphic the pie chart below shows the main reasons why agricultural

land becomes less productive.

The table shows how these causes affected three regions of the world during the 1990s so the description

of the question is telling us that the pie chart is describing the causes of worldwide land degradation

whereas the table is showing us the causes of land degradation by region let us look at how to paraphrase

this question language first the synonyms instead of shows will say present instead of Main will say

primary instead of reasons we’ll say causes agricultural land can be replaced with farm land less productive

can be stated as degraded shows can be replaced with highlights how can be rephrased as the manner in

which causes can be stated as factors affected can be replaced with influenced regions can be stated

as areas and during can be replaced with the word in so once we have used all of these synonyms.

This is what our sentence looks like the pie chart presents the primary causes why farmland becomes

The table highlights the manner in which these factors influenced three areas of the world in the 1990s

now notice that in this case we have two separate sentences.

Now if you want you can leave it as two separate sentences for your introduction because it’s fine to

have an introduction that’s one or two sentences long.

However we can improve the quality of our paraphrasing by making some additional changes.

So let’s go ahead and make those changes.

The first thing that we can do is instead of using two separate sentences we can actually combine these

two sentences using a subordinating conjunction.

The other thing that we can do is we can change up the word order so here we have the word degraded.

We can move this word right here in place of the word.

Why so once we’ve done that this is what our final introduction looks like.

The pie chart presents the primary causes for the degradation of farmland while notice that the word

while is our subordinating conjunction.

This subordinating conjunction is connecting these two sentences together while the table highlight

the manner in which these factors influenced three areas of the world in the 1990s.

Now I want you to note one more thing when it comes to changing up the word order in this case when

we move the word degraded here in place of the word.

We also have to change the form of this word.

So here we have written for the degradation of farmland.

We’ve changed the form of this word from an adjective to a noun degradation is a noun.

Also we’ve added some additional words to fit it into the sentence.

We’ve said for the degradation of farmland so keep in mind that sometimes when you’re changing of the

word order you may also have to change the form of the word from a noun to a verb or a verb to an adjective.

And so one also sometimes you may need to add additional words to fit it into the sentence so I hope

that all of this is clear to you.

I want to once again point out that when you’re sitting in your exam I don’t want you to break down

the synonyms for the different words from the question language in this way.

You don’t have time for this in your exam.

Remember you only have two to three minutes to write an introduction of only broken up the synonyms

in this way to show you what’s going on in my mind when I’m constructing the introduction.

So all of this that I’ve mentioned here including the synonyms including changing up the word order

using conjunctions to join the sentences together.

All of this should be happening in your mind when you’re constructing your introduction.

OK you don’t have to actually write any of this down on paper.

This should be happening in your mind.

So I hope that that is clear for you that is going to be the end of this video in the next video.

I’m going to show you how to write the introductions for process diagrams.

So I’ll see you there.

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