How to Write Introductions for Comparative Graphs
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In this video we’re looking at how to write introductions for the comparative craft questions so if
you’ll remember this is what a comparative graph looks like.
It’s a type of graph or a chart where we don’t have changes being described over a period of time.
We just have a static snapshot of some data.
So this is an example of a practice question that you may see on your eyelids exam.
In this example of comparative graph we have a bar graph and here we have a description of what this
bar graph is about.
So this description reads the chart below shows the expenditure of two countries on consumer goods in
So here we have the data for different consumer goods for two different countries France and the UK.
So now let’s look at how to paraphrase this description you’ll recall from the previous video that the
first thing that we do when we’re paraphrasing is we think of the different synonyms that we can use.
So in this case instead of saying shows we can say illustrate instead of expenditure.
We can say amount of money spent instead of two countries.
We can specify the two countries in this case.
We have France and the U.K.
finally instead of saying good we can say products so once we have replaced
all of these words with our synonyms.
This is what our sentence looks like the chart illustrates the amount of money spent in France and the
on consumer products.
Now I want you to note that instead of saying the word products here we can specify the products that
we’re talking about.
So in our bar graph for example we actually have five different consumer products namely cars computers
books Perfume and cameras.
So instead of saying products we can list these products.
The other thing that you can do is you can change the world order so you can move this part on consumer
You can move it right here after the word spend so once we’ve done all of that this is what our final
paraphrased sentence looks like the chart illustrates the amount of money spent on five consumer goods
cars computers books Perfume and cameras in France and the U.K.
in 2010 let us move on to the next example
this time we have a table question and here is the description of the table this description reads.
The table below gives information on consumer spending on different items in five different countries
So here’s our table and it’s giving us information about these products from five different countries
so let’s see how to paraphrase this will first look at the synonyms instead of caves.
We can use the word illustrates.
Now I want you to note that the word illustrates is not always a synonym for the word gifts however
in this particular context we can use the word illustrates as a synonym for the word gifts because the
word illustrates fits the context of the sentence we can use this word as a synonym so when you’re thinking
of the different synonyms that you can use.
I want you to think of different words that fit the context of the sentence the word that you use as
a synonym has to make sense let us move on instead of information.
We can say data instead of on.
We can say about instead of consumer spending we can say how much consumers spend instead of different.
We can use the word various instead of items.
We can say products and services and instead of five different countries we can specify exactly which
countries we’re talking about in this case.
We’re talking about Ireland Italy Spain Sweden and Turkey so once we use all of these synonyms This
is what our sentence looks like the table illustrates data about how much consumers spend on various
products and services.
In Ireland Italy Spain Sweden and Turkey in 2002.
Now it’s also possible to change up the word order in this sentence.
So let’s do that as well.
We’re going to move this part here after the word consumers so once we have done that this is what our
introduction looks like.
The table illustrates data about how much consumers in Ireland Italy Spain Sweden and Turkey spend on
various products and services.
In 2002 so that’s our paraphrased question language and that’s all we need to write for our introduction.
Remember the introduction is only one to two sentences long let’s move on to our next example this time
we have a pie chart question the chart below shows how energy is used in an average Australian household.
The second chart shows the greenhouse gas emissions which result from this energy use.
So here we have a description about both the pie charts that are in our info graphic so it’s telling
us that the first pie chart is about the Australian household energy use and the second pie chart is
about the greenhouse gas emissions that result from this energy use so let’s go ahead and paraphrase
this question of language will first look at the synonyms instead of saying the first chart and second
We can combine them together and simply say the two charts instead of shows we can say represent instead
of energy is used.
We can say the use of energy instead of average.
We can say typical instead of Australian household we can say household in Australia.
Instead of saying greenhouse gas emissions we can say emissions of greenhouse gas instead of a result.
We can say resulting and finally instead of saying use we can say consumption so once we use all of
these synonyms This is what our sentence looks like.
The two charts represent the use of energy by a typical household in Australia and emissions of greenhouse
gas resulting from this energy consumption.
Next we’re going to change up the word order so we’re going to move this word resulting here after the
word and so once we’ve done that.
This is what our final introduction looks like.
The two charts represent the use of energy by a typical household in Australia and the resulting emissions
of greenhouse gas from this energy consumption so that’s all you need to do when you’re writing or introduction.
You just have to paraphrase the description in the question language and you can do this in just one
Now let’s look at our final example.
Here we have a mixed charts question.
So here’s the description for this info graphic the pie chart below shows the main reasons why agricultural
land becomes less productive.
The table shows how these causes affected three regions of the world during the 1990s so the description
of the question is telling us that the pie chart is describing the causes of worldwide land degradation
whereas the table is showing us the causes of land degradation by region let us look at how to paraphrase
this question language first the synonyms instead of shows will say present instead of Main will say
primary instead of reasons we’ll say causes agricultural land can be replaced with farm land less productive
can be stated as degraded shows can be replaced with highlights how can be rephrased as the manner in
which causes can be stated as factors affected can be replaced with influenced regions can be stated
as areas and during can be replaced with the word in so once we have used all of these synonyms.
This is what our sentence looks like the pie chart presents the primary causes why farmland becomes
The table highlights the manner in which these factors influenced three areas of the world in the 1990s
now notice that in this case we have two separate sentences.
Now if you want you can leave it as two separate sentences for your introduction because it’s fine to
have an introduction that’s one or two sentences long.
However we can improve the quality of our paraphrasing by making some additional changes.
So let’s go ahead and make those changes.
The first thing that we can do is instead of using two separate sentences we can actually combine these
two sentences using a subordinating conjunction.
The other thing that we can do is we can change up the word order so here we have the word degraded.
We can move this word right here in place of the word.
Why so once we’ve done that this is what our final introduction looks like.
The pie chart presents the primary causes for the degradation of farmland while notice that the word
while is our subordinating conjunction.
This subordinating conjunction is connecting these two sentences together while the table highlight
the manner in which these factors influenced three areas of the world in the 1990s.
Now I want you to note one more thing when it comes to changing up the word order in this case when
we move the word degraded here in place of the word.
We also have to change the form of this word.
So here we have written for the degradation of farmland.
So we’ve changed this word degraded which is an adjective.
We’ve changed the form of this word from an adjective to a noun degradation is a noun.
Also we’ve added some additional words to fit it into the sentence.
We’ve said for the degradation of farmland so keep in mind that sometimes when you’re changing of the
word order you may also have to change the form of the word from a noun to a verb or a verb to an adjective.
And so one also sometimes you may need to add additional words to fit it into the sentence so I hope
that all of this is clear to you.
I want to once again point out that when you’re sitting in your exam I don’t want you to break down
the synonyms for the different words from the question language in this way.
You don’t have time for this in your exam.
Remember you only have two to three minutes to write an introduction of only broken up the synonyms
in this way to show you what’s going on in my mind when I’m constructing the introduction.
So all of this that I’ve mentioned here including the synonyms including changing up the word order
using conjunctions to join the sentences together.
All of this should be happening in your mind when you’re constructing your introduction.
OK you don’t have to actually write any of this down on paper.
This should be happening in your mind.
So I hope that that is clear for you that is going to be the end of this video in the next video.
I’m going to show you how to write the introductions for process diagrams.
So I’ll see you there.
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