ساختاربندی تکلیف چهارم
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Structuring Task 4
The structure of Task Four is actually very similar to the structure of Task Three. Because they’re both integrated tasks with reading, listening and then you response, which is spoken. Now the difference, of course is that you’re reading from a textbook and listening to a lecture in the fourth task.
And then you speak about the lecture, but you begin in a very similar way to tasks free. You begin by summarizing what you read in the text. Now, that text is a definition. So you’re going to define that same idea, you’re going to give a general definition of the concept.
That should only take one or two sentences and it is quick about 10 seconds, maybe 15 seconds. Try not to spend too much time on this, because you will give more concrete details from the lecture after and those concrete details can take more time. So for example, in the reading, we get a general definition of syllable timing and stress timing, which are ways to describe how a language sounds when it’s spoken.
In other words, there are categories we can put languages in based on their rhythms. So now, I have just given a general definition. A very broad idea about these two things, syllable timing and stress timing. They are categories. They are ways of describing a language.
Now the next part, I’m going to do is about what the professor said. And this will give explanations and examples and details, which explain better what was in my first part, what was in my general definition. So, this is a good chance to link the text and the lecture. At the beginning, you talk about the text.
And now you talk about the lecture and you can make that, that connection by talking about the professor and naming the professor as the source. So for example, you say, the professor illustrates with the example of or the professor goes further than the text by giving the example of or anything like that.
The professor explains these concepts by. If you are naming a professor or say, or the lecture. You could say, in the lecture, we heard an example of. Then you are now moving on to the listening, which is really what the question is about. It asks you to explain the concept with examples from the lecture.
That’s the most important part of your answer. So here’s an example, taking from a lecture, the more specific details that define syllable and stress timing. The professor illustrates the difference with the examples of Jamaican English and standard North American English. He says that Jamaican English speakers, for instance, they don’t stress individual syllables very much.
Instead they, well, they stress each syllable the same. Here, I have an introduction with the professor illustrates the difference. Now, I’m moving on to talk about the lecture in my second part and I use specific details from the lecture to define how this Jamaican English relates to the idea of syllable timing and stress timing. Next, I’m going to do the same thing again with the second example from the lecture.
And in order to introduce that, I can use a contrast word or a comparison word or a list word that shows the relationship between the two examples. Because example one and example two might be very similar or they might be contrasting, or maybe they are just more of the same. So a phrase like meanwhile, what’s more, similarly, on the other hand, secondly, next, you’re just moving onto the next idea.
Moving onto the next example. This has the same importance and timing as part two. So as I said, about ten seconds for the definition at the beginning. And then after that, you have a full 50 seconds more to give parts 2 and 3. So, that would be about 25 seconds in each of these. You could spend and 20 and 20 here, if you are very quick and then give a little summary at the end.
A summary should not take any more than 5 to 10 seconds or you can skip the summary altogether and take a full 25 seconds on both. So this part three, the example is going to look very similar to the example from part two. North American English speakers, on the other hand, they do the opposite, according to the professor.
I mean, they stress some syllables extra. So basically, that makes the language stress-timed, because the speed of a sentence changes based on how many stresses there are. And this, like I said is very similar to part two. I am giving a little introduction here with this transition phrase that shows contrast in this example and then I’m talking about the specific details from the lecture, and how they relate to stress timing, and syllable timing in the text.
So to recap, start by summarizing the concept from the text giving that definition. Next, explain the first concrete detail from the lecture and then explain the second concrete detail. And in both cases, you’re going to transitions. So, you transition into the lecture by talking about what the professor does in relation to the text?
So the professor illustrates this, the professor gives examples. And then you transition by using that list or contrast like next, or on the other hand to move to the second detail.
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