دوره چگونه بیاموزیم ، فصل 1 : یادگیری چیست؟
دربارهی این فصل:
Although living brains are very complex, this module uses metaphor and analogy to help simplify matters. You will discover several fundamentally different modes of thinking, and how you can use these modes to improve your learning. You will also be introduced to a tool for tackling procrastination, be given some practical information about memory, and discover surprisingly useful insights about learning and sleep.
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It turns out, though, that if you understand just a little bit of some of the basics about how your brain works, you can learn more easily and be less frustrated. If you remember, a pinball game works by, you pull back on the plunger, release it, and a ball goes boinking out, bouncing around on the rubber bumpers, and that's how you get points. Maybe involving something simple like adding some numbers, or more advanced ideas like literary criticism or calculating electromagnetic flows.
These insights are based on solid research from neuroscience, from cognitive psychology, and also from dozens of leading instructors and practitioners in difficult-to-learn subjects. Whether you're a novice or an expert, you will find great new ways to improve your skills and techniques for learning, especially related to math and science. You can benefit from these ideas whether you are struggling in high school or soaring through math and science at graduate levels at a university.
So let's take a look at some famous people from history who used their different thinking modes to help them with their problem solving. He'd relax in a chair and let his mind go free, often still vaguely thinking about what he had been previously focusing on. To gain muscular structure, you need to do a little work every day, gradually allowing your muscles to grow.
This brain weighs three pounds, but it consumes ten times more energy by weight than the rest of the body, a very expensive organ. It came as a surprise to discover that what we do so well and take for granted, like seeing, hearing, reaching, running, are all much more complex problems than we thought and way beyond the capability of the world's fastest digital computers. Psychologists who study the unconscious mind have found that influences include thought processes, memory, emotions and motivation.
Your brain, naturally enough, looks for a way to stop that negative stimulation by switching your attention to something else. Researchers discovered that not long after people might start actually working out what they didn't like, that neurodiscomfort disappeared. A few minutes of web surfing, a cup of coffee, or a bite of chocolate, even just stretching or chatting mindlessly, allowing your brain to enjoyably change its focus for a while.
In the greater scheme of all the different careers and disciplines that people can pursue, why are those involving math and science, sometimes, a bit more challenging? No multiplication, division, or other kinds of things that can directly equate to mini mathematical or scientific terms. During this time of seeming relaxation, your brain's diffuse mode has a chance to work away in the background and help you out with your conceptual understanding.
When I look back on my childhood or I remember some words from Spanish or from Russian, Zdravstvuite, or I bring to mind one of Maxwell's equations, I'm drawing on portions of my brain involved in long term memory. But what I'm trying to hold a few ideas in mind to connect them together so I can understand a concept or solve a problem, I'm using my working memory. Long term memory is important because it's where you store fundamental concepts and techniques that are often involved in whatever you're learning about.
Taking a test without getting enough sleep means you're operating with a brain that's got little metabolic toxins floating around in it. During sleep your brain also rehearses some of the tougher parts of whatever you're trying to learn, going over and over neural patterns to deepen and strengthen them. Sleep has also been shown to make a remarkable difference in your ability to figure out difficult problems and to understand what you're trying to learn.
In some sense then, this makes Dr. Terrence Sinalski a leading father figure for the modern field of neuroscience. The ultimate goal of Dr. Sejnowski's research is to build linking principles, from brain to behavior using computational models. I've already mentioned that I get lots of good ideas when I run, but I also, know, that my brain is, helping me remember things, because of the fact that I have new neurons being born, and surviving in my hippocampus.
Although living brains are pretty complex, this week we've used metaphor and analogy and zombies to help simplify matters. In essence, people have two fundamentally different modes of thinking that, for the purpose of this course, we've labeled focused and diffuse. Creative thinkers throughout history, whatever their discipline, have found ways to access the diffuse mode, often more directly and quickly.
I can tell you from my own experience this course has changed how I study and learn. All these years of schooling, including an undergraduate degree, and a masters degree and I never had one instructor show me what the instructors in this course share with us. Participants in other courses sometimes drop the first week.
I passed this cut-off age 14, and the thing is, it's a self fulfilling prophecy because I believed this was true, so I thought, okay, well there's no point in doing any work now, so I only put like minimal effort in and because of that I don't make any progress. There are actually great ways to get immersion virtually, you can get Skype based conversation practice, you can listen to streamed radio 24 hours a day if you wanted to. I spent six months trying to learn Spanish, and I got nowhere in that time, one of the things I did was I, I bought El SeAaor de los Anillos, which is The Lord of the Rings.
Dr. Robert Bilder directs the consortium for Neuropsychiatric Phenomics, which is a team of more than 50 investigators most centered at the University of California in Los Angeles. And the way that I find easiest to remember those five factors is to use the acronym OCEAN, which stands for openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticisim. And it probably permits different neural networks to assemble themselves in ways that may make sense spontaneously, but are free from the guided process of our top down mind.
Interestingly Daphne says that she struggled with writers block during all of her years of newspapering and didn't address the problem until she started her own business. That's the part of the brain that's good at spelling and grammar and alphabetical order and sort of very specific tasks and when you're writing, you want to create. >> Well, this is very interesting because it's related to the techniques that brilliant Nobel Prize winning neuroscientist Santiago Ramr,Lr,n y Cajal used when he was trying to really understand what was going on at an anatomical level.
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