انواع سوال - دسته بندی

: پکیج آموزشی TOEFL مگوش / سرفصل: مهارت خواندن / درس 18

انواع سوال - دسته بندی

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Question Type: Category

Our final type of question is the categorize question. These are the last type of question you might see, similar to summary questions. And actually answering them is very similar to summary questions. In order to answer them, you match details with larger topics. That is, you categorize details. So you’ll have a table with A or B and you’ll have to move some sentences into the correct categories.

There will be only one of these on your test, probably. They are very rare. Usually, there are none after a passage. Summary questions are much more common. It’s possible that you will not see any categorized questions on your test. But it’s also possible that you might see two.

Now, as I’ve said, these are similar to summary questions and they happen in the same place. At the end of the passage. And just like summary questions, they count for extra points. One categorized question could count for three or four times the normal points. That is if you have a very large categorized question, it would be question number 12.

And, it would count for four times what a normal detail or vocabulary or inference question would. They’re pretty low frequency, though. So, they’re not usually super important. If you do see it, you have to be very careful. You might not see it at all though.

In order to answer them, just like summary questions, you need to know about the structure of the passage. And similar to summary questions, you’ll want to look back at the passage and find the details. But in this case, we are not just looking for what is an important detail or idea. We are matching small, specific details.

Very small, specific details to larger topics. So, we’re working with the pieces of the passage in a different way from summary questions. Because we want very small details, whereas summary questions want the bigger ideas. All right, let’s see an example.

As usual, we are going to use for our sample, the text that is linked below. Here are the directions. Select the appropriate sentences from the answer choices below and match them to the type of reproduction to which they relate. Two of the phrases will not be used. Okay.

Notice this. Two of the phrases will not be used. Sometimes it says one. And that depends on how many answers there are. Notice this, so you’re not stuck looking at incorrect answer choices and trying to categorize them.

Know how many are not going to be categorized. Let’s see our possible answer choices and our categories. So we’ve got two categories, asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction. I can already remember that asexual reproduction was about cloning. It was vegetative reproduction that the plants did. So that can help me.

But the details might be a little bit more specific than that. And remember that there are two answer choices here which are just supposed to trick you. Let’s take a look through them. The majority of animals produce offspring in this way. A link between previously unconnected plants is formed.

The offspring is genetically identical to its progenitor. A plant is grown from a seed. Special roots may aid in the process. A plant cannot reproduce when removed from a group. The world’s largest organism most likely was created in this way. All right, while I read through those, I looked for ones that stand out that I know are definitely one category or the other category.

The first one I saw was this, special roots may aid in the process. I remember those special roots. Rhizomes, they were about vegetative reproduction. The plants did those. It’s asexual. So, I’m going to move that to the appropriate category.

Next, what else? Well, I remember this one, too. The world’s largest organism. That was Pando, that forest, the trees. And it was created with rhizomes with those special roots. So, that goes into the same category about asexual reproduction.

All right. Now I”m going to go through the rest of these and try to find them in the passage. First, the majority of animals produce offspring in this way. Using the keyword animals, I find myself in paragraph one. Specifically this sentence. While certain types of fish, reptiles and insects among others do reproduce asexually, most creatures from the animal kingdom are born from two parent individuals with two discrete sets of genes.

So animals including fish, reptiles and insects, they do reproduce asexually but notice a key word here, while. This transition word shows us that there’s a contrast here. Some animals reproduce asexually, but most don’t. Most are from two parents which means that there is a sexual reproduction. So, we move that to the appropriate category.

Next, a link between previously unconnected plants is formed. Okay, well, this sounds like asexual reproduction. It sounds like those roots but let’s find it in the passage. And in paragraph three, we see some description of the root system. Specifically, this sentence might help. Within the soil, a root will extend horizontally away from the parent plant, eventually sending up a new stem that breaks through the open air a distance away and grows separately.

Okay. So, here we have a stem that comes from a parent plant. So, one plant makes a new plant. Does that match with a link between previously unconnected plants? No, because previously unconnected plants tell us that there are these two plants and a connection is made between them.

That’s not correct. What we really want is one plant. And it creates a connection to a new plant which then forms a baby plant. So, this is not what the passage says. And we can cross off our second answer choice. How about this one?

The offspring is genetically identical to its progenitor. Okay, so we have genetically identical and progenitor and we find words like that in paragraph one. Specifically, we have a couple sentences that might help us. Here, we see a clone which is genetically identical to its progenitor. That sounds good, but is a clone an offspring?

And we have this sentence that says, plants frequently reproduce asexually, creating genetically identical offspring. So, between these two, if we link them together, we can see that clones are plants which are genetically identical to their parents. And that is asexual reproduction, as said in this second sentence. So, we can move this up to asexual reproduction.

Now, we just have two more. We have to choose between this one and this one. What can we cross off? Or what can we move to the correct place in sexual reproduction? Let’s check for a plant has grown from a seed. Can we find that seed in the passage?

I remember that’s around here in paragraph two. Specifically, this sentence helps us. While those species may also reproduce sexually through the production of seeds, offspring from those seeds are not considered part of the colony as they are not genetically identical to the plants that created the seeds. Okay.

So, we know that these plants do create seeds, and the seeds are not part of the colony because the seeds are not clones. They are a different type of reproduction. That must mean that they are not asexual reproduction. They must be sexual reproduction. And finally, we have this one.

A plant cannot reproduce when removed from a group. We did see something about removing a but all that said is the plant will survive. It didn’t say that the plant cannot reproduce. That’s just not in the passage. So we can cross it out.

And, there we go. We are finished with our categorization question.

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