Summary for Module 2

توضیح مختصر: You can think of a chunk as a scintillating network of neurons that compactly synthesizes key ideas or actions. But at the same time, they're a single easy to access item that you can fit like a ribbon into the slot on your working memory. Simple recall, trying to remember the key points without looking at the page, is one of the best ways to help the chunking process along.

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[SOUND] In this video, I’m going to synthesize some of the main ideas of this week’s videos. In other words, we’ll chunk our week on chunking. Here we go. Chunks are pieces of information, neuroscientifically speaking, that are bound together through use and often through meaning. You can think of a chunk as a scintillating network of neurons that compactly synthesizes key ideas or actions. Chunks can get bigger and more complex. But at the same time, they’re a single easy to access item that you can fit like a ribbon into the slot on your working memory. Chunks are best built with focused, undivided attention, understanding of the basic idea. And practice to help deepen your patterns and to help you gain big picture context. Simple recall, trying to remember the key points without looking at the page, is one of the best ways to help the chunking process along. It seems to help build neural hooks. They help you better understand the material. Also try recalling material in places that are different from where you originally learned the material, so it becomes more deeply ingrained and accessible, regardless of what room you’re in. This can be very helpful for tests. Transfer is the idea that a chunk you’ve mastered in one area can often help you much more easily learn chunks of information in different areas that can share surprising commonalities. Interleave your learning by practicing your choice of different concepts, approach, and techniques all in one session. Chunks are very important, but they don’t necessarily build flexibility, which is also important in becoming an expert with the material you’re learning. Illusions of competence in learning. Learn to recognize when you’re fooling yourself about whether you’re actually learning the material. Test yourself frequently. Using little mini-tests to see whether you’re actually learning the material, or whether you’ve been fooling yourself, thinking you’re learning when you’re actually not. Recall is actually a form of mini-testing. Try to avoid depending too much on highlighting, which can fool you into thinking that the material is going into your brain when it actually isn’t. Mistakes are a good thing to make when you’re learning. They allow you to catch illusions of competence. Avoid practicing only the easy stuff, which can bring the illusion that you’ve mastered the material. Deliberately practice what you find more difficult to gain full mastery of the material. Einstellung is when your initial thought, an idea you’ve already had in mind, or a neural pattern you’ve already developed well and strengthened, prevents a better idea or solution from being found. Or keeps you from being flexible enough to accept new, better, or more appropriate solutions. The Law of Serendipity is helpful. Lady Luck favors the one who tries. Just pick one tiny thing out to learn, then another. Just keep trying and you’ll be pleasantly surprised at the results. I’m Barbara Oakley. Thanks for learning about learning. [BLANK_AUDIO]